Acoustic communication in the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer.


This paper deals with acoustic communication in the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer. This species emits a high variety of vocal signals that can be classified on the basis of their acoustical features and context of production. Individuals sang throughout the year and most songs were discrete and stereotyped. The songs were composed of strophes (phrases) with minor structural variations of elements that were preceded and followed by a temporal gap (3 to 12 s). Most strophes were composed of 2 to 6 elements that were often dissimilar in structure and ranging from 0.98 to 4.5 kHz. The biological function of the song appeared to be to maintain pair bonds and to synchronize breeding activities. Different types of context-specific calls were identified. Individuals produced Type-I alarm calls (fast and wide-band, 1.03 to 6.36 kHz) under low predation pressure andType-II calls (narrow frequency range, 1.37 to 3.39 kHz) under high predation pressure. Roosting calls were fast and wide-band signals phonetically similar to Type-I alarm calls. Three types of begging/contact calls were recorded in nestlings/fledglings. Greeting calls and flight calls were composed of complex phrases, like song, but were short and used for proximate functions.

4 Figures and Tables

Cite this paper

@article{Kumar2004AcousticCI, title={Acoustic communication in the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer.}, author={A. Vincent Antony Kumar}, journal={Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências}, year={2004}, volume={76 2}, pages={350-8} }