Acoustic Differences between the Scoters Melanitta nigra nigra and m. n. americana

@inproceedings{Sangster2009AcousticDB,
  title={Acoustic Differences between the Scoters Melanitta nigra nigra and m. n. americana},
  author={George Sangster},
  year={2009}
}
Abstract Scoter vocalizations may have a role in pair formation and pair bonding. I compared the courtship calls of male Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra nigra and M. n. americana) using published and archived recordings. Courtship calls of the two subspecies differed diagnosably in duration. In contrast, recordings from different localities within the ranges of each taxon showed no diagnosable differentiation. This finding represents the first indication these taxa differ in characters other… 
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