Acidocalcisomes ? conserved from bacteria to man

  title={Acidocalcisomes ? conserved from bacteria to man},
  author={Roberto Docampo and Wanderley de Souza and Kildare Miranda and Peter Rohloff and Silvia N. J. Moreno},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
Recent work has shown that acidocalcisomes, which are electron-dense acidic organelles rich in calcium and polyphosphate, are the only organelles that have been conserved during evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Acidocalcisomes were first described in trypanosomatids and have been characterized in most detail in these species. Acidocalcisomes have been linked with several functions, including storage of cations and phosphorus, polyphosphate metabolism, calcium homeostasis, maintenance… 
Acidocalcisomes of eukaryotes.
Acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites.
Isolation and Characterization of Acidocalcisomes from Trypanosomatids.
Detailed subcellular fractionation protocols using iodixanol gradient centrifugations to isolate high-quality acidocalcisomes from Trypanosoma brucei are provided, which are subsequently validated by electron microscopy, and enzymatic and immunoblot assays with organellar markers.
Acidocalcisomes and Polyphosphate Granules
Their electron density and en- richment in pyrophosphate (PPi), poly P, and cations such as calcium and magnesium are characteristics in common with those of the organelles described as acidocalcisomes in a number of eukaryotic cells, indicating that they have been conserved during evolution from prokaryotes to eukARYotes.
Proteomic Analysis of the Acidocalcisome, an Organelle Conserved from Bacteria to Human Cells
A comprehensive insight is provided into the unique composition of acidocalcisomes of T. brucei, an important eukaryotic pathogen, and direct evidence that acidocalCisomes are especially adapted for the accumulation of polyphosphate is provided.
Evolution of acidocalcisomes and their role in polyphosphate storage and osmoregulation in eukaryotic microbes
Storage of phosphate and cations may represent the ancestral physiological function of acidocalcisomes, with cation and pH homeostasis and osmoregulatory functions derived following the divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Proteomic analysis of acidocalcisomes of Trypanosoma brucei uncovers their role in phosphate metabolism, cation homeostasis, and calcium signaling
Proteomic analysis of acidocalcisomes of T. brucei procyclic stages provides direct evidence that acidocalCisomes are especially adapted to accumulate polyP bound to cations and for calcium signaling.
The acidocalcisome as a target for chemotherapeutic agents in protozoan parasites.
In parasitic protozoa acidocalcisomes possess enzymes that are absent or different from their mammalian counterparts and could be potential targets for chemotherapy, such as the vacuolar proton translocating pyroph phosphatase, and the soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase.


The acidocalcisome.
Identification of Organelles in Bacteria Similar to Acidocalcisomes of Unicellular Eukaryotes*
It is reported that the volutin granules of Agrobacterium tumefaciens possess properties similar to the acidocalcisomes, a compound isolated from a marine bacterium that has been shown to uncouple proton pyrophosphatase activity acting as a chloride/proton symport.
Acidocalcisomes of Phytomonas françai Possess Distinct Morphological Characteristics and Contain Iron
Results suggest that the electron-dense organelles of P. françai are homologous to the acidocalcisomes described in other trypanosomatids, although with distinct morphology and elemental content.
Polyphosphate Content and Fine Structure of Acidocalcisomes of Plasmodium falciparum
It is reported that Plasmodium falciparum merozoites possess electron-dense organelles rich in phosphorus and calcium, as detected by X-ray microanalysis of intact cells, which are similar to the acidocalcisomes of other apicomplexans, but of more irregular form.
A common evolutionary origin for mitochondria and hydrogenosomes.
P phylogenetic analyses of hydrogenosomal Hsp70, Hsp60, and Hsp10 show that these proteins branch within a monophyletic group composed exclusively of mitochondrial homologues, establishing that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes have a common eubacterial ancestor and imply that the earliest-branching eukaryotes contained the endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria in higher eukARYotes.
Two special organelles found in Trypanosoma cruzi.
Two unique organelles from Trypanosoma cruzi are reviewed: the acidocalcisome, cytoplasmic vacuoles containing a very high Ca2+ concentration and a Ca2- H+ translocating ATPase activity, and the reservosome, site of accumulation of endocytosed macromolecules, very rich in cysteine proteinase.
The Polyphosphate Bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Possess a Proton-pumping Pyrophosphatase and Are Similar to Acidocalcisomes*
Results indicate that the electron-dense vacuoles of C. reinhardtii are very similar to acidocalcisomes with regard to their chemical composition and the presence of proton pumps.
Origins of hydrogenosomes and mitochondria.
Acidocalcisomes and the Contractile Vacuole Complex Are Involved in Osmoregulation in Trypanosoma cruzi*
Results strongly support a role for acidocalcisomes and the contractile vacuole complex in osmoregulation and identify a functional role for aquaporin in protozoal os moregulation.