Acidic deposition and internal proton sources in acidification of soils and waters

  title={Acidic deposition and internal proton sources in acidification of soils and waters},
  author={Nico van Breemen and Charles T. Driscoll and Jan Mulder},
Enough is now known of the sources of hydrogen ions (protons) in natural ecosystems for the relative importance of external and internal sources to be compared. In acidic soils in the northeastern United States and western Europe, external often exceeds internal proton loading, resulting in soil acidification by aluminium dissolution and sulphate retention. One consequence is the export of ecologically significant quantities of hydrogen ion and aluminium in drainage water. 

Anthropogenic and natural acidification in terrestrial ecosystems

The total proton load found in these ecosystems exceeds by far the known rates of buffering in soils by silicate weathering and release of basic cations (see above). Under the present proton load

Sources of acidification in Central Europe estimated from elemental budgets in small basins

Long-term increase in acidification of water and soils in the Elbe river basin is caused mainly by the deposition of dry SO2and the application of industrial fertilizers. The direct input of hydrogen

Effects acid atmospheric deposition on soil and groundwater.

An overview is given of: the processes buffering acid inputs in various buffer ranges; the sources of soil acidification, including natural acidification by weak acids, and anthropogenic

Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic proton sources in soils in The Netherlands

Dissociation of weak acids is shown to be the main cause of natural proton (acid) production. We have quantified this proton source for calcareous and non-calcareous sandy soils in The Netherlands.

Depletion of soil aluminium by acid deposition and implications for acid neutralization

In acid soils acid rain is often largely neutralized by dissolution of aluminium1–3, which is potentially phyto-toxic4. Here we show that only a minor fraction of soil aluminium is readily dissolved.

The proton cycle of a deciduous forest ecosystem in the Netherlands and its implications for soil acidification

Investigations into the proton cycle of a forest ecosystem in the Netherlands revealed an intermediate rate of soil acidification: 4.5 × 102 keq km-2 yr-1 of which 2/3 is caused by external proton

Soil acidification and alkalinization.

In this chapter I briefly discuss the nature of soil acidification and alkalinization, and define these processes in terms of changes in the relevant capacity factors. Next, the contribution of

Causes of soil acidification: a summary

. A review of recent data shows that (i) dissolved CO2 has its greatest acidifying effect in soils with pH values above about 6.5, (ii) fertilizers containing NH−1+ ions or urea will acidify soil

Effects of Acidic Deposition on the Chemical Form and Bioavailability of Soil Aluminum and Manganese

Acidic deposition is hypothesized to cause changes in soil chemistry and to damage terrestrial ecosystems primarily through effects on soil acidification (Bloom and Grigal 1985, Environmental



Acid Rain on Acid Soil: A New Perspective

There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession, and the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.


In a stand of Fagus silvatica in the Solling highlands, Federal Republic of Germany, we followed the effect of acid precipitation on chemical soil state and the ion fluxes in the ecosystem between

Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall

Acid rain commonly has high concentrations of dissolved SO2−4, NH+4 and NO−3. Sulphuric and nitric acids are usually considered to be the acidic components, whereas ammonium has a tendency to

The Transfer of Chemical Elements within a Heath-Ecosystem (Calluna vulgaris) in Northwest Germany

The purpose of this investigation was to describe the element budget of a heathland area in Northwest Germany by measuring the fluxes of elements within the ecosystem. The following fluxes were

The Nitrogen Budget of Thoreau's Bog

Dinitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition are the dominant sources of nitrogen to Thoreau's Bog, contributing °1.0 and 0.7 g·m—2°yr—1, respectively. Denitrification must compete with nitrate

Hydrogen ion budget of an aggrading forested ecosystem

A detailed hydrogen ion budget was developed for the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, in W. Thornton, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Hydrogen ion sources (2541 eq H + ha -1 yr -1 ) were found to

Aluminum toxicity to fish in acidic waters

The simultaneous increase in Al concentration with elevated acidity must be considered to accurately assess the potential effect of acidification of surface waters on survival of fish populations.

The chemistry of the atmosphere and oceans

tion. The third major section of the book introduces the field of river quality. Brief reviews are provided for sediment and heat as pollutants and for the extensive topic of chemical water quality,