Acid Rain: A Serious Regional Environmental Problem

  title={Acid Rain: A Serious Regional Environmental Problem},
  author={Gene E. Likens and F. Herbert Bormann},
  pages={1176 - 1179}
At present, acid rain or snow is falling on most of the northeastern United States. The annual acidity value averages about pH 4, but values between pH 2.1 and 5 have been recorded for individual storms. The acidity of precipitation in this region apparently increased about 20 years ago, and the increase may have been associated with the augmented use of natural gas and with the installation of particle-removal devices in tall smokestacks. Only some of the ecological and economic effects of… 
Effects of Acid Rain on Freshwater Ecosystems
A discussion of some of the processes that have contributed to the acidification of lakes as well as those that have protected acid-sensitive freshwaters is presented.
Potential effects of acid precipitation on soils in the humid temperate zone
Unmanaged soils in the northeast United States generally tend toward increasing acidity which results from several natural processes in the soil. Possible effects of acid precipitation on these
The acidity problem — An outline of concepts
The nature and extent of acid precipitation is reviewed. Studies have shown that significant decreases in the pH of rain have occurred in Scandinavia and the northeastern United States during the
Acid rain and its effects on sediments in lakes and streams
  • G. Likens
  • Environmental Science
  • 2004
Wet and dry deposition of acidic substances, which are emitted to the atmosphere by human activities, have been falling on increasingly widespread areas throughout the world in recent decades. As a
Chemical Wastes in our Atmosphere—An Ecological Crisis
A large variety of chemical wastes is added to our atmosphere from nu merous human activites. Some of these, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides (which produce acid rain), ozone, metals, and
Acid rain: an overview of the problem
This paper deals with the key issues, concerns, and further research needs in the area of acid rain. The cause and effect relationship between pollutant emissions and the measured acidity of


Bicarbonates have been found in considerable abundance in all samples of water collected at Geneva and vary from 12 to 92 pounds as HCO3- per acre annually" (p
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Financial support was provided by the National Science Foundation and the U.S
  • We thank T. Wood and C. Schofield for reading and commenting on the manuscript
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