Acid–base and electrolyte abnormalities in heart failure: pathophysiology and implications


Electrolyte and acid–base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in subjects with congestive heart failure. This may be due either to the pathophysiological alterations present in the heart failure state leading to neurohumoral activation (stimulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, sympathoadrenergic stimulation… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10741-015-9482-y


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