Accurate determination of the charge transfer efficiency of photoanodes for solar water splitting.

  title={Accurate determination of the charge transfer efficiency of photoanodes for solar water splitting.},
  author={Dino Klotz and Daniel A. Grave and Avner Rothschild},
  journal={Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP},
  volume={19 31},
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the surface of semiconductor photoanodes is critical for photoelectrochemical water splitting. This reaction involves photo-generated holes that oxidize water via charge transfer at the photoanode/electrolyte interface. However, a certain fraction of the holes that reach the surface recombine with electrons from the conduction band, giving rise to the surface recombination loss. The charge transfer efficiency, ηt, defined as the ratio between the flux of… 

Oxygen Evolution Catalysts at Transition Metal Oxide Photoanodes: Their Differing Roles for Solar Water Splitting

In the field of photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen production, dedicated efforts have recently been made to improve water oxidation at photoanodes, and in particular, to accelerate the

Radiative and Non-Radiative Recombination Pathways in Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanotubes for PEC Water-Splitting

Anatase and rutile mixed-phase TiO2 with an ideal ratio has been proven to significantly enhance photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity in water-splitting applications due to suppressing the

Carbon Nitride‐Based Photoanode with Enhanced Photostability and Water Oxidation Kinetics

Carbon nitrides (CN) have emerged as promising photoanode materials for water‐splitting photoelectrochemical cells (PECs). However, their poor charge separation and transfer properties, together with

Engineering the interfaces in water-splitting photoelectrodes – an overview of the technique development

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting offers an attractive option for solar fuel production to solve the global energy crisis and environmental issues, but the present low efficiency hinders its

Key Strategies to Advance the Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance of α‐Fe2O3 Photoanode

The last few decades’ extensive research on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has projected it as a promising approach to meet the steadily growing demand for cleaner and renewable

Questioning the rate law in the analysis of water oxidation catalysis on haematite photoanodes

It is argued that the reaction of water oxidation on haematite is first order and independent of ðhs Þ I and this debate may be helpful to understand the actual mechanism of water photooxidation on the photoanodes.

Promoting Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation on Ti-Doped Fe2O3 Nanowires Photoanode by O2 Plasma Treatment

Surface electron traps on semiconductor photoanodes mediate surface recombination and deteriorate the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation performance of the photoanode. Developing convenient

Two-site H2O2 photo-oxidation on haematite photoanodes

A nonlinear kinetic mechanism that involves concerted interaction between adions induced by H2O2 deprotonation in the alkaline solution with adjacent intermediate species of the water photo-oxidation reaction, thereby involving two reaction sites as in Langmuir–Hinshelwood reactions is postulated.



Determination of photoelectrochemical water oxidation intermediates on haematite electrode surfaces using operando infrared spectroscopy.

Results provide direct evidence of high-valent iron-oxo intermediates as the product of the first hole-transfer reaction on the haematite surface and represent an important step in establishing the mechanism of PEC water oxidation on semiconductor electrodes.

Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical investigation of water oxidation with hematite electrodes

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized to deposit uniform thin films of hematite (α-Fe2O3) on transparent conductive substrates for photocatalytic water oxidation studies. Comparison of the

Dynamics of photogenerated holes in surface modified α-Fe2O3 photoanodes for solar water splitting

This paper addresses the origin of the decrease in the external electrical bias required for water photoelectrolysis with hematite photoanodes, observed following surface treatments of such

The potential versus current state of water splitting with hematite.

The potential of hematite as a photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is described and the current understanding of key loss-mechanisms are introduced and correlated to performance enhancement strategies.

Comparison of heterogenized molecular and heterogeneous oxide catalysts for photoelectrochemical water oxidation

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions, such as water splitting, promise a direct route for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Successful implementations of these reactions often require the

Substrate-Electrode Interface Engineering by an Electron-Transport Layer in Hematite Photoanode.

The result indicates the expedited electron extraction from photoanode to the substrate can suppress not only the recombination at the back contact interface but also those at the surface, which results in higher water oxidation efficiency.

Probing the photoelectrochemical properties of hematite (α-Fe2O3) electrodes using hydrogen peroxide as a hole scavenger

We study hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoelectrodes for water splitting by examining the fate of photogenerated holes. Using H2O2 as an efficient hole scavenger, we collect all holes that arrive at the

Faradaic efficiency of O2 evolution on metal nanoparticle sensitized hematite photoanodes.

The FE has been determined to be 100%, within the experimental errors, for both sensitized and reference samples, and it is demonstrated that the sensitized samples were stable for at least 16 hours photocurrent testing.

Kinetics of light-driven oxygen evolution at alpha-Fe2O3 electrodes.

The kinetics of light-driven oxygen evolution at polycrystalline alpha-Fe2O3 layers prepared by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition has been studied using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS), indicating the presence of a kinetic bottleneck in the overall process.