AIM To study the usefulness of orbital ultrasonography in the diagnosis of papilledema. METHODS Fifty patients who were referred to the neurophthalmology clinic and clinically suspected to have papilledema were selected. Thorough, clinical examination with slitlamp biomicroscopy and visual acuity assessment was done. These patients underwent ultrasonography to demonstrate the crescent sign. The patients were further evaluated with the neurologist and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thus confirming the diagnosis of papilledema. The results of our ultrasonographic evaluation were correlated with final diagnosis after thorough clinical evaluation, imaging and the neurologist's opinion. RESULTS Out of 50 patients diagnosed having papilledema on MRI, 46 (92%) showed crescent sign on B scan ultrasonography. Headache was most common presenting complaint in 47 (94%) and idiopathic intracranial hypertension was most common underlying cause of papilledema in 30 (60%) cases. CONCLUSION "Crescent sign" seen on ultrasonography is a sensitive tool for diagnosis of papilledema. It is cost effective, less cumbersome and effective tool to differentiate between papilledema and pseudo papilledema before subjecting the patients to costly investigations like MRI. A positive crescent sign should always be followed by MRI to find out the cause of papilledema.