Accuracy of caudal epidural injection: the importance of real-time imaging.

  title={Accuracy of caudal epidural injection: the importance of real-time imaging.},
  author={Atilla Ergin and Omer Yanarateş and Ali Sizlan and Mehmet Emin Orhan and Ercan Kurt and Mustafa Erdal Guzeldemir},
  journal={Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain},
  volume={5 3},
Caudal epidural steroid injections are often used for low back pain. Fluoroscopic guidance has been frequently cited as a requirement for this procedure. In this preliminary report, we demonstrate that fluoroscopic guidance for caudal epidural Tuohy needle placement without real-time imaging may result in inadvertent intravenous injection of the drug. We detected intravenous leakage of the drug in 4 cases of 10 when real-time fluoroscopic imaging was used. Thus, real-time imaging may be… CONTINUE READING

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