OBJECTIVE To first investigate the accumulative levels of DDTs and HCHs in human breast milk of primipara in Shenzhen area, analyze influencing factors and assess exposure risk of infant in Shenzhen. METHODS From April in 2011 to April in 2012, 85 primiparas who have lived in Shenzhen over 3 years after parturition 4 - 6 weeks were recruited, and their breast milk were collected and questionnaires were filled out simultaneously. The samples were extracted five times with hexane, cleaned up by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) and SPE, and quantified by gas chromatography-election capture detection (GC-ECD). Correlations between DDTs, HCHs and maternal age, weight, dietary, living time as well as infant birth weight and length were also analyzed with the SPSS 13.0 statistical software respectively. RESULTS Among the several groups of DDTs and HCHs metabolites, p,p'-DDE were detected in total 85 samples and beta-HCH were detected in 58 samples, which accounted for 68.2% of the breast milk. The median levels of sigmaHCHs and sigma DDTs were 2.980 ng/g whole weight (80.200 ng/g fat) and 9.610 ng/g whole weight (268.390 ng/g fat). Both levels of sigmaHCHs and sigmaDDTs in the human milk had a positive association with maternal age among the demographic characteristics of primiparas. Furthermore, levels of sigma HCHs were positively correlated with freshwater fish consumption. However, sigma DDTs levels which were calculated in fat had a positive association only with the amount of poultry meat intake. CONCLUSION Beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were detected in human breast milk, and correlated with age and dietary intake. The average estimated daily intakes of HCHs and DDTs by infants are 0.468, 1.842 microg/(kg x BW x d) respectively, lower than acceptable daily intakes (ADI) proposed by the Ministry of Health of China and (the WHO/FAO) Joint Meeting of Pesticide Residues (JMPR). The average levels of HCHs, DDTs in the breast milk in Shenzhen general population are lower than those of Chinese average level.