Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

@article{Heuer2011AccumulationOS,
  title={Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.},
  author={Holger Heuer and Qodiah Solehati and Ute Zimmerling and Kristina Kleineidam and Michael Schloter and Tanja M{\"u}ller and Andreas Focks and S{\"o}ren Thiele-Bruhn and Kornelia Smalla},
  journal={Applied and environmental microbiology},
  year={2011},
  volume={77 7},
  pages={2527-30}
}
Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications. 

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