Accumulation of some secretory enzymes in venom glands of Vipera palaestinae.

  title={Accumulation of some secretory enzymes in venom glands of Vipera palaestinae.},
  author={R. S. Brown and M. B. Brown and A Bdolah and Elazar Kochva},
  journal={The American journal of physiology},
  volume={229 6},
Secretion of venom in the venom glands of Vipera palaestinae was studied by measuring the protein content and enzymatic activities of L-amino acid oxidase (LAO), phosphodiesterase (PDE), and benzoylarginine ethyl esterase (BAEE). These were tested in the accumulating venom and gland homogenates at 0, 2, 3, 4,6, and 15 days after an intitial emptying of the venom glands by milking. Changes in the total activities of the enzymes and in the protein concentration were found in the venom samples… 
Intracellular transport of proteins in active and resting secretory cells of the venom gland of Vipera palaestinae
The present results and earlier data show that the increase in the rate of secretion after initiation of a new venom regeneration cycle is the result of accelerated rates of both synthesis and transport.
Processing of snake venom L-amino acid oxidase during intracellular transport.
The isoelectrofocusing patterns of l-amino acid oxidase from venom gland homogenates and of the secreted venom of Vipera palaestinae have been compared and the results obtained may suggest that the sialic acid residues which are attached to LAO during its transport serve as “markers” for secretion.
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All the secretory cells and thesecretory pathway in the cells are qualitatively alike in regard to their content of the three metalloproteases, implying that mixing of the proteases before co-packaging into secretory vesicles occurs at the beginning of protein synthesis in the RER cisternae.
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Using isotope tracer techniques, it was found that in the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje annulifera) venom is secreted both from pre-existing and from newly-formed granules, and the rate of protein biosynthesis peaks at 4-9 days after venom was extracted (milked) from the glands.
Activation of Bothrops jararaca snake venom gland and venom production: a proteomic approach.
This study identified, for the first time, the presence of different toxins in the snake venom gland in its quiescent stage and showed that not all toxins are synthesized during the activated stage of the gland, suggesting an asynchronous synthesis for different toxins.
Non-parallel expression of a triflavin-like disintegrin venom protein in the main glands of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus
Snake venom proteins are synthesized and accumulated in the venom gland. Based on studies that have focused on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in the venom gland after the
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Metabolic expenditure has been shown to increase abruptly in several snake species directly after venom expenditure, while the later stages of venom replenishment seem to involve minor costs. This
The Venom Glands of Snakes and Venom Secretion
The origin of snake venom has been variously ascribed to different body organs. The idea that the venom virulence depends on the snake’s anger led to a famous controversy in the late 17 th century.
Independent secretion of different digestive enzymes by the pancreas.
  • S. Rothman
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    The American journal of physiology
  • 1976
While glucose did not increase overall digestive enzyme secretion, it did change the proportions of the enzymes in secretion, suggesting that different digestive enzymes can be secreted independently of each other.
Protein C activity in dogs envenomed by Vipera palaestinae.
Low protein C activity in accidently envenomed dogs may play a role in formation of thrombosis and hemostatic derangement as well as inflammation in V. palaestinae envenomations, and its prognostic value is investigated.