Access to Space: A Strategy for the Twenty-First Century

@article{Worden2006AccessTS,
  title={Access to Space: A Strategy for the Twenty-First Century},
  author={Simon Peter Worden and Jess M. Sponable},
  journal={Astropolitics},
  year={2006},
  volume={4},
  pages={69 - 83}
}
The United States (US) launch infrastructure is at a crisis point. Human access to space embodied in the Space Shuttle is due to be phased out by 2010. Currently, there are no heavy lift, 100 ton class launchers to support the US national vision for space exploration. Medium and large expendable launch providers, Boeing's Delta IV, and Lockheed-Martin's Atlas V Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles are so expensive that the Delta no longer carries commercial payloads and the Atlas is unlikely to… 
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Outer Space as a Physical Space
TLDR
The chapter draws attention to the basic features of selected celestial bodies located in the inner solar system and the effects of the space environment on living organisms to establish a coherent picture of the natural side of the geopolitical understanding of outer space.