Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre

  title={Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre},
  author={H.E.S.S. collaboration A. Abramowski and Felix Aharonian and Faical Ait Benkhali and A. G. Akhperjanian and E. O. Anguner and Michael Backes and Arnim Balzer and Y Becherini and Julia K. Becker Tjus and David Berge and Sabrina Bernhard and Konrad Bernlohr and Emrah Birsin and Rebecca Blackwell and Markus Bottcher and Catherine Boisson and Julien Bolmont and P. Bordas and Johan Bregeon and François Brun and P. Brun and Mark Bryan and Tomasz Bulik and J. Carr and Sabrina Casanova and Nachiketa Chakraborty and R. Chalme-Calvet and Ryan C. G. Chaves and A. Chen and M. Chr'etien and Sergio Colafrancesco and Gabriele Cologna and Janet M. Conrad and Camille Couturier and Y. Cui and I. D. Davids and B. Degrange and Christoph Deil and P. deWilt and Arache Djannati-Atai and Wilfried F. Domainko and Axel Donath and Luke O'c. Drury and Guillaume Dubus and Kathleen Dutson and Jarosław Dyks and Michal Dyrda and T. D. P. Edwards and Kathrin Egberts and Peter Eger and J-P. Ernenwein and P. Espigat and Christian Farnier and Stephen J. Fegan and Fabrice Feinstein and Milton Virg{\'i}lio Fernandes and Diane Fernandez and A. Fiasson and G. Fontaine and A. Forster and Matthias Fussling and Stefano Gabici and Michael Gajdus and Yves A. Gallant and Tania Garrigoux and G. Giavitto and Berrie Giebels and J. F. Glicenstein and Daniel Gottschall and Arti Goyal and M.-H. Grondin and Mira Grudzi'nska and D. Hadasch and S. Haffner and Joachim Hahn and Jarryd Hawkes and G{\"o}tz Heinzelmann and Gilles Henri and German Hermann and Olivier Hervet and Andreas Hillert and J. A. Hinton and W. Hofmann and Petter Hofverberg and C. Hoischen and Markus Holler and Dieter Horns and Alex Ivascenko and A. Jacholkowska and Marek Jamrozy and Mateusz Janiak and Felix Jankowsky and Ira Jung-Richardt and Max Anton Kastendieck and K. Katarzy'nski and Uli Katz and Daniel Kerszberg and Bruno Kh'elifi and Michel Kieffer and S. Klepser and Dmitry Klochkov and Wlodek Klu'zniak and D. Kolitzus and Nu. Komin and K. Kosack and S. Krakau and Fabien Krayzel and Petrus Paulus Kruger and H'elene Laffon and Giovanni Lamanna and J. C. Lau and Julien Lefaucheur and V. Lefranc and A. Lemi'ere and Marianne Lemoine-Goumard and J.-P. Lenain and Thomas Lohse and Anatoli N. Lopatin and C.-C. Lu and R. Lui and V. Marandon and Alexandre Marcowith and Carolina Mariaud and Ramin Marx and Gilles Maurin and Nigel I. Maxted and M. G. F. Mayer and Petrus J. Meintjes and Ulf Menzler and Manuel Meyer and A. M. W. Mitchell and Rafal Moderski and Mahmoud Mohamed and Knut Dundas Moraa and Emmanuel Moulin and T. Murach and Mathieu de Naurois and Jacek Niemiec and Louise Beth Oakes and Hirokazu Odaka and S. Ottl and S. Ohm and B. Opitz and Michał Ostrowski and I. Oya and Mike Panter and R. D. Parsons and Manuel Paz Arribas and Nikki Pekeur and Guy Pelletier and P. Petrucci and Bernard Peyaud and Santiago Pita and H. Poon and Heike Prokoph and Gerd Puhlhofer and M. Punch and Andreas Quirrenbach and S. Raab and Ignasi Reichardt and Anita Reimer and O. Reimer and Matthieu Renaud and Raquel de los Reyes and Frank M. Rieger and Carlo Romoli and S. Rosier-Lees and Gavin Rowell and B. Rudak and Cameron B Rulten and Vardan Sahakian and David {\vS}{\'a}lek and D. A. Sanchez and A. Santangelo and Manami Sasaki and Reinhard Schlickeiser and Fabian Schussler and Alex Schulz and U. Schwanke and Stefanie Schwemmer and Albertus S. Seyffert and Rachel Simoni and H'elene Sol and Felix Spanier and Gerrit Spengler and F. Spies and L. Stawarz and Riaan Steenkamp and Christian M. Stegmann and F. Stinzing and Kornelia Stycz and Iurii Sushch and J-P. Tavernet and Thomas Tavernier and A. M. Taylor and R. Terrier and Martin Tluczykont and Cyril Trichard and Richard. J. Tuffs and Kathrin Valerius and Johan van der Walt and Christopher van Eldik and Brian van Soelen and Georges Vasileiadis and J. Veh and Christo Venter and Aion Viana and Pascal Vincent and Jacco Vink and Fabien Voisin and Heinrich J. Volk and Thomas Vuillaume and S. J. Wagner and Philipp Wagner and Robert M. Wagner and Matthias Weidinger and Quirin Weitzel and R. M. White and Alicja Wierzcholska and Philipp Willmann and A. Wornlein and Denis Wouters and R. Yang and V'ictor Zabalza and D. N. Zaborov and Michael Zacharias and Andrzej A. Zdziarski and Andreas Zech and Floriana Zefi and Natalia Żywucka},
Galactic cosmic rays reach energies of at least a few petaelectronvolts (of the order of 1015 electronvolts). This implies that our Galaxy contains petaelectronvolt accelerators (‘PeVatrons’), but all proposed models of Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators encounter difficulties at exactly these energies. Dozens of Galactic accelerators capable of accelerating particles to energies of tens of teraelectronvolts (of the order of 1013 electronvolts) were inferred from recent γ-ray observations… 

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