Accelerated evolution of a false-truffle from a mushroom ancestor

  title={Accelerated evolution of a false-truffle from a mushroom ancestor},
  author={Thomas D. Bruns and Robert Fogel and Thomas J White and Jeffrey D. Palmer},
THE false-truffles (Hymenogastrales) are a group of basidomycetous fungi that produce underground truffle-like basidiocarps. They are generally believed to be independently derived from several mushroom lineages1–4, but extensive morphological divergence often obscures recognition of these phylogenetic connections. Comparisons of mitochondrial DNA now demonstrate a surprisingly close relationship between species of false-truffles in the genus Rhizopogon (Hymenogastraceae) and the mushroom genus… 

Evolution of extreme specialization within a lineage of ectomycorrhizal epiparasites

Using molecular identification methods it is shown that some monotropes are highly specific in their fungal associations and at least one species, Pterosporo andromedea is specialized on a single species group within the genus Rhizopogon.

Evolution in action: molecular evidence for recent emergence of secotioid genera Endxoptychum, Gyrophragmium and Longula from Agaricus ancestors.

  • J. Geml
  • Biology
    Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica
  • 2004
This study provides evidence for independent emergence of these secotioid fungi from Agaricus ancestors, most likely from species placed in the section Arvenses as inferred from molecular data.

Evolutionary history of the sequestrate genus Rossbeevera (Boletaceae) reveals a new genus Turmalinea and highlights the utility of ITS minisatellite-like insertions for molecular identification

A barcode gap analysis demonstrates that the insertion within the ITS2 is more informative for discrimination at various taxonomic levels than the rest of the ITS region and could therefore serve as a unique molecular barcode for these genera.

Tales of the unexpected: angiocarpous representatives of the Russulaceae in tropical South East Asia

Six new sequestrate Lactarius species are described from tropical forests in South East Asia with extensive macro- and microscopical descriptions and illustrations of the main anatomical features and their phylogenetic relationships are discussed.

Derivation of a polymorphic lineage of Gasteromycetes from boletoid ancestors

Morphological and ecological characters, and pigment synthesis support the delimitation of the Sclerodermatineae, and indicate the radiation of different lineages in the Boletales originating from fungi with primitive tubular hymenophores.

Understanding the Evolutionary Processes of Fungal Fruiting Bodies: Correlated Evolution and Divergence Times in the Psathyrellaceae

It is argued that the changes in fruiting body types in mushrooms in general can be attributed to independent events and not to particular geologic ages, and the evolutionary benefit of deliquescence may be prevention against desiccation via accelerated ontogeny of the fruiting bodies.

Fossil ectomycorrhizae from the Middle Eocene.

These exquisitely preserved specimens represent the first unequivocal occurrence of fossil ectomycorrhizae and demonstrate that such associations were well-established at least 50 million years ago.

Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of Homobasidiomycetes.

Two species of fossil mushrooms that are similar to extant Tricholomataceae are described from Cretaceous and Miocene ambers and suggests that in certain lineages homobasidiomycete macroevolution has also involved long periods during which there has been little morphological change.

Understanding the evolutionary processes of fungal fruiting bodies: correlated evolution and divergence times in the Psathyrellaceae.

It is argued that the changes in fruiting body types in mushrooms in general can be attributed to independent events and not to particular geologic ages, and the evolutionary benefit of deliquescence may be prevention against desiccation via accelerated ontogeny of the fruiting bodies.

Resolved phylogeny and biogeography of the root pathogen Armillaria and its gasteroid relative, Guyanagaster

The molecular clock analysis and ancestral range estimation suggest the most recent common ancestor to the armillarioid lineage arose 51 million years ago in Eurasia, a time marked by a warm and wet global climate.



The Major Groups of Basidiomycetes

My views on a taxonomic system for the major groups of basidiomycetes are offered, but they are certainly not proposed as the last word, even my own, on the subject.

A New Species of Gastroboletus and Its Phylogenetic Significance

The present data do not provide proof of an ancestral or derived position of Gastroboletus in relation to the genera of Boletaceae, but the implications with regard to the evolution of Basidiomycetes are discussed.

The molecular clock runs more slowly in man than in apes and monkeys

The results suggest that the variation in rate among mammals is primarily due to differences in generation time8 rather than changes in DNA repair mechanisms9, and propose a method for estimating the divergence times between species when the rate constancy assumption is violated.


  • A. Templeton
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1983
An algorithm of phylogenetic inference that deals more directly with the problem of convergent evolution and statistical inhomogeneity between different restriction enzymes is proposed and non-parametric statistical procedures are presented for testing hypotheses about relative rates of evolution among the various lineages.

Rates of DNA sequence evolution differ between taxonomic groups.

Examination of available measurements shows that rates of DNA change of different phylogenetic groups differ by a factor of 5, with the slowest rates observed for higher primates and some bird lineages, while faster rates are seen in rodents, sea urchins, and drosophila.

Evidence for higher rates of nucleotide substitution in rodents than in man.

  • C. WuW. Li
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1985
It is found that rodents evolve significantly faster than man when the coding regions of 11 genes from rodents (mouse or rat) and man are compared with those from another mammalian species (usually bovine).

A Dictionary of the Fungi

A Dictionary of the FungiBy Dr. G. C. Ainsworth Dr. G. R. Bisby. Pp. viii + 360. (Kew: Imperial Mycological Institute, 1943.) 20s.

pEMBL: a new family of single stranded plasmids.

These vectors have been used successfully for DNA sequencing with the dideoxy-method, and can be used for any other purpose for which M13 derivatives are used, however, the pEMBL plasmids have the advantage of being smaller than M13 vectors, and the purification of the DNA is simpler.