Acaulosporoid glomeromycotan spores with a germination shield from the 400-million-year-old Rhynie chert

  title={Acaulosporoid glomeromycotan spores with a germination shield from the 400-million-year-old Rhynie chert},
  author={Nora Dotzler and Christopher Walker and Michael Krings and Hagen Hass and Hans Kerp and Thomas N. Taylor and Reinhard Agerer},
  journal={Mycological Progress},
Scutellosporites devonicus from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert is the only fossil glomeromycotan spore taxon known to produce a germination shield. This paper describes a second type of glomeromycotan spore with a germination shield from the Rhynie chert. In contrast to S. devonicus, however, these spores are acaulosporoid and develop laterally in the neck of the sporiferous saccule. Germination shield morphology varies, from plate-like with single or double lobes to tongue-shaped structures… 
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Glomeromycotan spores from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert provide the first evidence for germination shields in fossil fungi and demonstrate that this complex mode of germination was in place in
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the genus Archaeospora (family Archaeosporaceae) contain both monomorphic and dimorphic species. The synanamorphism is often hard to discern without ontogenetic
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