Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes

@article{Rozen2003AbundantGC,
  title={Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes},
  author={Steve Rozen and Helen Skaletsky and Janet D. Marszalek and Patrick Minx and Holland S. Cordum and Robert H. Waterston and Richard K. Wilson and David C. Page},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={423},
  pages={873-876}
}
Eight palindromes comprise one-quarter of the euchromatic DNA of the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome, the MSY. They contain many testis-specific genes and typically exhibit 99.97% intra-palindromic (arm-to-arm) sequence identity. This high degree of identity could be interpreted as evidence that the palindromes arose through duplication events that occurred about 100,000 years ago. Using comparative sequencing in great apes, we demonstrate here that at least six of these MSY… 
Large X-linked palindromes undergo arm-to-arm gene conversion across Mus lineages
TLDR
Evidence of X-palindrome arm-to-arm gene conversion at rates comparable to rates of autosomal allelic gene conversion in mice is found, indicating gene conversion may facilitate the rapid evolution of palindrome-associated genes.
New insights into the evolution of human Y chromosome palindromes through mutation and gene conversion
TLDR
It is demonstrated that arm-to-arm gene conversion, which occurs at a rate of 6.01 × 10 −6 conversions/base/year, is not biased toward the retention of the ancestral state of sequences, a finding that may explain the observed higher inter-species conservation of arms, without invoking any bias of conversion.
Palindromes on the human X chromosome : testis-biased transcription, gene conversion and evolution
TLDR
A clear correlation exists between the enrichment for conserved palindromes on the sex chromosomes, a testis transcription bias associated with palindromaes and recurrent gene conversion between palindrome arms.
Large X-linked palindromes undergo arm-to-arm gene conversion across Mus lineages.
TLDR
The authors' evolutionary sequence comparisons find evidence of X-palindrome arm-to-arm gene conversion at rates comparable to autosomal allelic gene conversion rates in mice, suggesting their sequence is rapidly diverging.
Recombination Dynamics of a Human Y-Chromosomal Palindrome: Rapid GC-Biased Gene Conversion, Multi-kilobase Conversion Tracts, and Rare Inversions
TLDR
An analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla P6 orthologs showed that the ancestral state bias has existed in all three species, and comparison of human and chimpanzees sequences with the gorilla outgroup confirmed that GC bias of the conversion process has apparently been active in both the human and chimpanzee lineages.
GC-biased gene conversion in X-chromosome palindromes conserved in human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque
TLDR
A striking history of GC-biased gene conversion in 12 palindromes conserved on the X chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque is demonstrated and a greater than 2:1 preference for GC bases over AT bases during gene conversion is supported.
GC-biased gene conversion in X-Chromosome palindromes conserved in human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque
TLDR
A striking history of GC-biased gene conversion in 12 palindromes conserved on the X chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque is demonstrated and a greater than 2:1 preference for GC bases over AT bases during gene conversion is supported.
Large palindromes on the primate X Chromosome are preserved by natural selection.
TLDR
An abundance of conserved palindromes on primate X Chromosomes is revealed and it is suggested that protein-coding gene families in palINDromes promote X-palindrome survival in the face of ongoing structural instability.
Large palindromes on the primate X Chromosome are preserved by natural selection
TLDR
An abundance of conserved palindromes on primate X Chromosomes is revealed, and it is suggested that protein-coding gene families in palINDromes promote X-palindrome survival in the face of ongoing structural instability.
Birth, expansion, and death of VCY-containing palindromes on the human Y chromosome
TLDR
Gross changes, especially duplications, in palindrome structure can be relatively frequent and facilitate the evolution of sex chromosomes in humans, and potentially also in other mammalian species.
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