Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) After the Complete Removal of Deer from an Isolated Offshore Island, Endemic for Lyme Disease

  title={Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) After the Complete Removal of Deer from an Isolated Offshore Island, Endemic for Lyme Disease},
  author={Peter W. Rand and Charles B. Lubelczyk and Mary S. Holman and Eleanor H. Lacombe and Robert P. Smith},
  booktitle={Journal of medical entomology},
Abstract Monhegan is an isolated 237-ha island lying 16 km off the coast of Maine. Introduced to the island in 1955, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, reached a density of ∼37/km2 by the mid-1990s. Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, first noticed in the late 1980s, flourished thereafter. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) on Monhegan are highly infected with Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner, the agent of Lyme disease. By… 

Density of Ixodes scapularis Ticks on Monhegan Island after Complete Deer Removal: A Question of Avian Importation?

Questing adult blacklegged tick abundance declined markedly three years after the 1999 removal of white-tailed deer from Monhegan Island, ME, suggesting I. scapularis was reintroduced annually via bird importation of subadult ticks, but unable to complete its two-year life cycle on the island due to lack of deer.

Integrated Control of Nymphal Ixodes scapularis: Effectiveness of White-Tailed Deer Reduction, the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, and Fipronil-Based Rodent Bait Boxes.

A combination of the broadcast application of M. anisopliae and small rodent-targeted fipronil-based bait boxes is an effective low-toxicity integrated approach that significantly reduced encounters with B. burgdorferi-infected questing nymphal I. scapularis on individual properties.

Topical treatment of white-tailed deer with an acaricide for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme borreliosis hyperendemic Community.

The passive topical application to deer of the acaricide amitraz resulted in a significant decrease in the population of free-living I. scapularis nymphs in the treated core in Connecticut, 2 years after the treatment of deer was discontinued.

Distribution and Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Isolates from Ixodes scapularis and Presence in Mammalian Hosts in Ontario, Canada

Overall, the molecular characterization of B. burgdorferi s.s. shows genetic heterogeneity within Ontario and displays a connecting link to common strains from Lyme disease endemic areas in the northeastern United States.

Relative Importance of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps as Vectors for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Field Vole (Microtus agrestis) Populations

ABSTRACT The importance of Ixodes ricinus in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens is well recognized in the United Kingdom and across Europe. However, the role of coexisting Ixodes species, such

The effects of acaricide treatment of sheep on red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica tick burdens and productivity in a multi‐host system

The importance of the frequent treatment of sheep with acaricide to reduce tick burdens on grouse, even in the presence of wild hosts is highlighted, because this relationship was similar on sites with a range of deer densities.

Forest and Surface Water As Predictors of Borrelia burgdorferi and Its Vector Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Indiana

There was a significant nonlinear response for I. scapularis to forest cover in 1 yr that indicated a greater probability of this tick presence at intermediate levels of forest area, and Infested does were harvested in significantly more forested areas than bucks.

Established Population of Blacklegged Ticks with High Infection Prevalence for the Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario

We document an established population of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario, Canada. Primers of the outer surface protein A (OspA) gene, the flagellin

Why Research on Lyme Disease and Ixodes scapularis Needs Wildlife Ecology without Taxonomic Bias: A Review

There appears to be a taxonomic bias in research on wildlife hosts and that this may be contributing to a continued lack of knowledge about potential transmission and management of Blacklegged Ticks or Lyme Disease.

Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens.

It is concluded that controlling ticks on deer by self-application of acaricide results in an overall decrease in the human risk for exposure to these three bacterial agents, which is due solely to a reduction in tick density.



Reduced Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and the Tick Parasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with Reduction of White-Tailed Deer

It is suggested that there is a threshold deer density of ≈10–20/km2, with corresponding tick densities necessary for I. hookeri to successfully parasitize I. scapularis at comparable deer andtick densities.

Attempt to Control Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Deer on an Isolated Island Using Ivermectin-Treated Corn

An attempt by an offshore island community to control the vector tick of Lyme disease by providing ivermectin-treated corn to an isolated herd of free-ranging white-tailed deer indicated that up to twice as many deer had been present during the project as originally presumed.

Effect of deer exclusion on the abundance of immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing small and medium-sized mammals.

Mice, raccoons, and opossums have a role in introducing potentially infective ticks to areas where deer have been excluded, though the level of immigration of ticks into the area will likely depend on the density of ticks outside the exclosure.

Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with exclusion of deer by electric fencing.

The exclusion of deer in conjunction with other tick control strategies in large areas could substantially reduce populations of I. scapularis and the risk of acquiring Lyme disease.

Competence of Peromyscus maniculatus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) as a reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetares: Spirochaetaceae) in the wild.

Equivalent rates of infection among engorged larval ticks, survival of infection through the larval-nymphal molt, and the isolation of B. burgdorferi from mice at both sites attest to the reservoir competence of P. maniculatus.

Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease risk by deer exclusion.

Deer fencing may provide a means of significantly reducing the abundance of I. scapularis and the risk of Lyme disease in relatively large areas without the need to reduce or eliminate the deer population.

Reduced abundance of immature Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) following incremental removal of deer.

The abundance of immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin was monitored for 9 yr (1983-1991) before and during the controlled, limited hunting of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus

Participation of birds (Aves) in the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Maine.

The abundance and infection rates of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, removed from mist-netted birds with those from live-trapped mice at a coastal study site in southern Maine, are compared during an 8-yr period in which the range of this tick and the incidence of Lyme disease increased in the state.

Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with topical self-application of permethrin by white-tailed deer inhabiting NASA, Beltsville, Maryland.

We report the first successful area-wide reduction of Ixodes scapularis by using minimal amounts of permethrin self-applied by free-ranging white-tailed deer in as little as 3 y of nearly continuous

Correlation between Abundance of Deer and That of the Deer Tick, Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae)

Abundance of larval I. dammini attached to white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus (Raphinesque), correlated with density of deer pellet groups, and was greatest on islands having resident deer and least on islands with few signs of deer, but this relationship did not hold in the case of nymphal ticks.