The incompetent external nasal valve: pathophysiology and treatment in primary and secondary rhinoplasty.
- M B Constantian
- Plastic and reconstructive surgery
METHODS: 60 patients who had non-melanocytic skin cancer on the only nasal tip were included in this study. There was no previous history of nasal surgery, allergic rhinitis, concha hypertrophy and other breathing problems in any patients. Six patients were treated with forehead flap, ten patients nasolabial island flap, twenty patients bilobe flap that based on inferior, 24 patients bilobe flap that based on superior. Function of the internal and external nasal valves were evaluated by preoperative and postoperative comparison of Cottles test, nasal endoscopy and digital phography of nares during forced inspiration and expiration and were followed up 1-years.