Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of the Androgen Receptor Inhibitor Enzalutamide in Rats and Dogs


Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor that has been approved in several countries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data in animals would facilitate understanding of the efficacy and safety profiles of enzalutamide, but little information has been reported in public. The purpose of this study was to clarify the missing ADME profile in animals. ADME of 14C-enzalutamide after oral administration as Labrasol solution were investigated in non-fasted male Sprague–Dawley rats and beagle dogs. Plasma concentrations of 14C-enzalutamide peaked in rats and dogs at 6–8 h after a single oral administration. In most tissues, radioactivity concentration peaked at 4 h after administration. Excluding the gastrointestinal tract, tissues with the highest concentration of radioactivity were liver, fat, and adrenal glands. The tissue concentrations of radioactivity declined below the limit of quantitation or <0.89 % of maximum concentration by 168 h post-dose. Two known metabolites (M1 and M2) and at least 15 novel possible metabolites were detected in this study. M1 was the most abundant metabolite in both rats and dogs. Unchanged drug was a minor component in excreta. In intact rats, the mean urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity accounted for 44.20 and 49.80 % of administered radioactivity, respectively. In intact dogs, mean urinary and fecal excretion was 62.00 and 22.30 % of the administered radioactivity, respectively. Rapid oral absorption was observed in rats and dogs when 14C-enzalutamide was administered as Labrasol solution. Tissue distribution in rats was clarified. The elimination of enzalutamide is mediated primarily by metabolism. Species differences were observed in excretion route.

DOI: 10.1007/s13318-016-0374-x

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@article{Ohtsu2016AbsorptionDM, title={Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of the Androgen Receptor Inhibitor Enzalutamide in Rats and Dogs}, author={Yoshiaki Ohtsu and Jacqueline A. Gibbons and Katsuhiro Suzuki and Michael E. Fitzsimmons and Kohei Nozawa and Hiroshi Arai}, journal={European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics}, year={2016}, volume={42}, pages={611-626} }