Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in humans

@article{Bruderer2012AbsorptionDM,
  title={Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in humans},
  author={Shirin Bruderer and G{\'e}rard Hopfgartner and Michael Seiberling and J Ean H. S Wank and Patricia N. Sidharta and Alexander Treiber and Jasper Dingemanse},
  journal={Xenobiotica},
  year={2012},
  volume={42},
  pages={901 - 910}
}
Macitentan is a tissue-targeting, dual endothelin receptor antagonist, currently under phase 3 investigation in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study the disposition and metabolism of macitentan were investigated following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose of 14C-macitentan to six healthy male subjects. The total radioactivity in matrices was determined using liquid scintillation counting. The proposed structure of metabolites was based on mass spectrometry characteristics and… 
The metabolism of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan in rat and dog
TLDR
Metabolism was a prerequisite for macitentan excretion as relevant amounts of parent drug were neither detected in bile nor urine, and all metabolic pathways were present in rat and dog.
Investigation of the Effects of Ketoconazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Macitentan, a Novel Dual Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, in Healthy Subjects
TLDR
Macitentan metabolism is indeed affected by CYP3A4 inhibition, but the changes are not considered to be clinically significant and macitentan can be administered concomitantly with CYP2C19 isoenzyme without need for dose adjustment.
Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Relationships of Macitentan, a New Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, After Multiple Dosing in Healthy Korean Subjects
TLDR
Multiple oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg of macitentan were well tolerated in healthy Korean subjects, and its pharmacokinetics correlated positively with ET-1 concentrations.
Mass balance, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the selective S1P1 receptor modulator ponesimod in humans
TLDR
Ponesimod is an orally administered, selective S1P1 receptor modulator that blocks the egress of lymphocytes from lymphoid organs and reduces the availability of circulating effector T/B-cells and was extensively metabolised and two pharmacologically inactive metabolites were detected in the circulation.
Tolerability, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Macitentan, a New Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects
TLDR
This study determined the tolerability, safety, PK, and pharmacodynamics (PD) of repeated 3 and 10 mg doses of macitentan in 16 Japanese subjects.
Simultaneous determination of macitentan and its active metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
TLDR
A fast, sensitive, and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was firstly developed and completely validated and successfully utilized to a human pharmacokinetic study of macitentan as well as ACT-132577 after oral administration of 10mg Macitentan tablet in healthy Chinese volunteers.
Pharmacokinetics of the novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment
TLDR
Based on these observations, pharmacokinetic alterations of macitentan due to hepatic or renal function impairment are not considered clinically relevant and no dose adjustment is necessary in these patients.
Human mass balance, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rovatirelin and identification of its metabolic enzymes in vitro
TLDR
Rovatirelin was extensively metabolised to 20 metabolites, and TAMP was identified as the major metabolite in plasma and excreta among its metabolites and recombinant human cytochrome P450 3A4 and CYP3A5 displayed enzymatic activity in the assay.
Pharmacokinetics of Macitentan in Caucasian and Japanese Subjects: The Influence of Ethnicity and Sex
TLDR
The data suggest that the minor differences in pharmacokinetics between the two groups are not clinically relevant and no dose adjustment of macitentan based on Japanese ethnic origin or sex is necessary.
Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
TLDR
A sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated and successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of macitentan after oral and intravenous administration.
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