Absolute pitch: Myths, evidence and relevance to music education and performance

  title={Absolute pitch: Myths, evidence and relevance to music education and performance},
  author={J. Carden and T. Cline},
  journal={Psychology of Music},
  pages={890 - 901}
The assumed extreme rarity of absolute pitch (AP), sometimes known as “perfect pitch”, is not supported by empirical evidence. Instead, studies indicate a prevalence of at least 4% for music students, making AP of potential importance to everyday music education. Considerable scientific curiosity about AP exists, though rarely have research findings been practically applied to music education. This review looks at the evidence of the origins of AP and of the distinct neurological, language and… Expand
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The article surveys and consolidates general neurobiological, psychological, and behavioural evidence to summarise what is currently known on this topic and aims to facilitate a greater understanding of music and auditory forms of synaesthesia and their interaction with AP. Expand


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  • G. Schlaug
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2001
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