Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa

@article{Ward2005AbruptAG,
  title={Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa},
  author={Peter D. Ward and Jennifer Botha and Roger Buick and M. de Kock and Douglas H. Erwin and Geoffrey Garrison and Joseph L. Kirschvink and Roger M. H. Smith},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={307},
  pages={709 - 714}
}
The Karoo basin of South Africa exposes a succession of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic terrestrial strata containing abundant terrestrial vertebrate fossils. Paleomagnetic/magnetostratigraphic and carbon-isotope data allow sections to be correlated across the basin. With this stratigraphy, the vertebrate fossil data show a gradual extinction in the Upper Permian punctuated by an enhanced extinction pulse at the Permian-Triassic boundary interval, particularly among the dicynodont therapsids… 
Comment on "Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa"
In a groundbreaking paper, Ward et al . ([ 1 ][1]) provided both the stratigraphic context and a quantitative description of the terrestrial vertebrate fossil record across the Permian-Triassic (P-T)
The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent
A unique isochronous interval in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, previously has been interpreted to postdate vertebrate extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Bethulie area, Lootsberg
Is the vertebrate-defined Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, the terrestrial expression of the end-Permian marine event?
The end-Permian extinction records the greatest ecological catastrophe in Earth history. The vertebrate fossil record in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, has been used for more than a century as the
Refined Permian–Triassic floristic timeline reveals early collapse and delayed recovery of south polar terrestrial ecosystems
The collapse of late Permian (Lopingian) Gondwanan floras, characterized by the extinction of glossopterid gymnosperms, heralded the end of one of the most enduring and extensive biomes in Earth’s
Organic Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy of the Karoo Supergroup
  • M. Wit
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2016
Carbon isotopes are being used increasingly for high resolution chemostratigraphy. δ13C variations provide relative temperature scales that can be complemented with litho- and bio-stratigraphy to
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