Abrupt Change in Food Environment Induces Cloning in Plutei of Dendraster excentricus

@article{Mcdonald2010AbruptCI,
  title={Abrupt Change in Food Environment Induces Cloning in Plutei of Dendraster excentricus},
  author={Kathryn A. Mcdonald and Dawn Vaughn},
  journal={The Biological Bulletin},
  year={2010},
  volume={219},
  pages={38 - 49}
}
Asexual reproduction, or cloning, of planktonic echinoderm larvae has been observed in the laboratory and in nature, but little is known about its ecology. Here we examine the effects of algal food density and of a change in food density on the incidence of cloning in larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus. Results indicate that a change in food concentration can induce cloning in plutei. Cultures transferred from a low to a high algal ration at the time when primary larvae were… 
Larval cloning in the crown-of-thorns sea star, a keystone coral predator
TLDR
It is shown that larval COTS are able to clone themselves in both low and high food conditions, and that the frequency of larval cloning increases with levels of food, but is unaffected by larval density, which lends support to bottom-up hypotheses as predictors of COTS outbreaks.
Why run and hide when you can divide? Evidence for larval cloning and reduced larval size as an adaptive inducible defense
TLDR
This study tested the hypothesis that the small size of predator-induced clones reduces vulnerability during encounters with planktivorous fish, and offered a new ecological context for asexual reproduction: rapid size reduction as a defense.
Environmental Induction of Polyembryony in Echinoid Echinoderms
TLDR
The unexpected developmental changes that were observed in response to present-day fluctuations in temperature and salinity suggest that ongoing and future environmental shifts may drive substantial changes in marine invertebrate developmental patterns, and that these changes will be different across taxa.
Larval ecology of echinoids
TLDR
The larval stage of echinoids can spend from a few days to several months in the plankton before settlement, and the factors that regulate settlement have been studied extensively, most have been examined in the laboratory, in small containers and in still water.
Ocean acidification induces budding in larval sea urchins
TLDR
It is shown that larvae of the purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, underwent high-frequency budding (release of blastula-like particles) when exposed to elevated pCO2 level, and the associated reduction in larval size is suggested.
Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians
  • I. Dolmatov
  • Biology, Medicine
    TheScientificWorldJournal
  • 2014
TLDR
New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here.
Choosing the right home: settlement responses by larvae of six sea urchin species align with hydrodynamic traits of their contrasting adult habitats
TLDR
Examination of three pairs of closely related sea urchins that differ in the energetic exposure of their adult habitats found that larval responsiveness to turbulence was more pronounced in urchin that settle in more hydrodynamically exposed locations, raising the possibility that evolutionary differences in larval responsive to environmental indicators of appropriate adult habitat might reinforce or even provide a mechanism for vicariance in the ocean.
Culturing echinoderm larvae through metamorphosis.
TLDR
To facilitate broader studies of post-embryonic echinoderms, the collective experience of echinoderm embryology labs is provided, with suggestions to try and pitfalls to avoid.
A newly identified left–right asymmetry in larval sea urchins
TLDR
This work shows for the first time in two echinoid species that there is a corresponding DA in the overall shape of the larva: late-stage plutei have consistently shorter arms specifically on the rudiment (left) side, and proposes several functional hypotheses to account for this newly identified asymmetry.
Overview of Polyembryony
TLDR
Polyembryony is a unique form of asexual reproduction whereby multiple offspring are produced from a single egg or zygote and has evolved and been maintained in a wide range of taxa, including rust fungi, algae, and animals.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 44 REFERENCES
Predator-Induced Larval Cloning in the Sand Dollar Dendraster excentricus: Might Mothers Matter?
  • D. Vaughn
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Biological Bulletin
  • 2009
TLDR
The hypothesis that cloning in D. excentricus plutei is maternally influenced by mothers is tested and reduced larval size was a uniform response to fish mucus and did not indicate an effect of mothers.
Morphological plasticity in laboratory-reared echinoplutei of Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz) and Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) in response to food conditions
TLDR
When food is scarce, the ciliated band elongates relative to larval size through an increase in larval arm length relative to body length, and this plasticity may be an adaptation to variable food supplies in their natural environment.
Widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae
Widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae Asexual reproduction by free-living invertebrate larvae is a rare and enigmatic phenomenon and, although it is known to occur in sea stars and brittle stars,
Developmental Plasticity in Macrophiothrix Brittlestars: Are Morphologically Convergent Larvae Also Convergently Plastic?
TLDR
Evidence is presented for similar plasticity of skeletal growth in ophioplutei of the brittlestar genus Macrophiothrix that spanned a 3.8-fold range in egg size and if internal skeletons are independently derived in the two classes, then plasticity in the expression of this homoplastic trait may itself behomoplastic.
Larval feeding structure plasticity during pre-feeding stages of echinoids: Not all species respond to the same cues
TLDR
This work investigated when in development sea urchin and sand dollar larvae can first alter their feeding morphology in response to different concentrations of food, and suggests that the nervous system and a regulator gene, orthopedia, play a mechanistic role.
Asexual reproduction by oceanic planktotrophic echinoderm larvae
TLDR
A novel mode of cloning by fission in planktotrophic bipinnaria larvae of the sea star Luidia sp.
Cloning by Ophiuroid Echinoderm Larvae.
  • E. Balser
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Biological bulletin
  • 1998
TLDR
Asexually produced secondary larvae of O. aculeata and an unidentified species of ophiuroid undergo metamorphosis, settle to the benthos, and initiate a tertiary larval generation, indicating that cloned larvae could be added to the population as long as environmental conditions could support a planktonic existence.
Ontogenetic and diel vertical migration of a planktonic echinoid larva
TLDR
Eight-armed larvae and newly metamorphosed juveniles were found to have lower specific gravities than younger plutei, probably resulting from an accumulation of lipid reserves prior to metamorphosis, and this decrease in specific gravity may account for the shallow distribution of advanced stage plutes observed in the plankton.
Predators Induce Cloning in Echinoderm Larvae
TLDR
This research shows that larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus also clone in response to cues from predators, suggesting an advantage against visual predators.
Effects of food concentration and availability on the incidence of cloning in planktotrophic larvae of the sea star Pisaster ochraceus.
TLDR
The authors' experiments indicate that cloning generally occurs after larvae have attained asymptotic body length and only when food is abundant and of high quality, and production of clones under optimal conditions of temperature and food may serve to increase larval populations when the environment is most conducive to larval growth.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...