Abnormal Brain Structure Implicated in Stimulant Drug Addiction

  title={Abnormal Brain Structure Implicated in Stimulant Drug Addiction},
  author={Karen D. Ersche and P. Simon Jones and Guy B. Williams and Abigail J. Turton and Trevor William Robbins and Edward T. Bullmore},
  pages={601 - 604}
Nature or Drug Abuse? There are significant structural changes in striatal and prefrontal brain regions of stimulant drugdependent individuals. However, it is not clear if these brain abnormalities predate drug-taking, rendering individuals vulnerable for the development of dependence, or if these changes are the effect of many years of drug use. Ersche et al. (p. 601; see the Perpective by Volkow and Baler) investigated brain abnormalities in both drug-dependent individuals and in their… 
Neurobiological Correlates of the Familial Risk for Stimulant Drug Dependence
  • K. Ersche
  • Psychology, Biology
  • 2013
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The neuroimaging evidence in humans and non-human primates is reviewed to demonstrate the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in emotional, cognitive, and behavioral alterations in drug addiction, with particular attention to the impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) framework.
Cognitive control dysfunction and abnormal frontal cortex activation in stimulant drug users and their biological siblings
The findings not only suggest a possible risk factor for stimulant abuse of poor inhibitory control and cortical inefficiency but they also demonstrate possible adaptations in the brains of stimulant users.
Drugs and the Adolescent Brain
It is found that cocaine induced changes in brain structure, and these were most pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence, and many of these changes occurred in brain regions previously implicated in addiction.
Aberrant Brain Neuroplasticity and Function in Drug Addiction: A Focus on Learning-Related Brain Regions
This chapter will review the altered brain structure and function associated to drug addiction, with a focus on brain regions involved in learning and motivated behavior. As evidenced by both
Adolescent Cocaine Exposure Causes Enduring Macroscale Changes in Mouse Brain Structure
It is suggested that altered brain structure following 1 month of abstinence may contribute to these persistent drug-related behaviors, and cocaine exposure is identified as the cause of these morphological changes.
The neural mechanisms of impulsivity implicated in drug addiction and non-drug addiction
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Evidence of a direct effect of cocaine on the neurobiology underlying impulse control is presented and the effects of cocaineon midline function suggest a dopaminergically mediated intersection between cocaine's acute reinforcing effects and its effects on cognitive control.
Abnormal structure of frontostriatal brain systems is associated with aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependence
Caine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption.
Neurobiology of the adolescent brain and behavior: implications for substance use disorders.
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  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 2010
Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion
It is hypothesized that the change from voluntary drug use to more habitual and compulsive drug use represents a transition at the neural level from prefrontal cortical to striatal control over drug seeking and drug taking behavior as well as a progression from ventral to more dorsal domains of the striatum, involving its dopaminergic innervation.
Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters.
Recognizing addiction as a chronic, relapsing brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use can impact society's overall health and social policy strategies and help diminish the health andsocial costs associated with drug abuse and addiction.
Similarity and disparity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia in MR volumetric abnormalities of the hippocampus-amygdala complex
  • J. Kwon, Y. Shin, J-J Kim
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • 2003
Non-specific hippocampal reduction in both the OCD and schizophrenic groups is likely to link to a clinical overlap between the two illnesses, whereas the left amygdala enlargement observed only in the OCD patients seems to be suggestive of a unique role for the amygdala in the pathophysiology of OCD.
Familial transmission of substance use disorders.
Elevation in risk of drug disorders among the relatives of probands with drug disorders across a wide range of specific substances, including opioids, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol, which is largely independent from the familial aggregation of both alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder.