Abdominal aortic coarctation: surgical treatment of 53 patients with a thoracoabdominal bypass, patch aortoplasty, or interposition aortoaortic graft.
OBJECTIVE Abdominal aortic coarctation is uncommon and often complicated with coexisting splanchnic and renal artery occlusive disease. This study was undertaken to define the clinical and anatomic characteristics of this entity, as well as the technical issues and outcomes of its operative treatment. METHODS Fifty-three patients, 34 males and 19 females, underwent surgical treatment of abdominal aortic coarctations from 1963-2008 at the University of Michigan. Patient ages in years ranged from 2-4 (n = 4), 5-8 (n = 17), 9-14 (n = 16), 15-20 (n = 11) and 25-49 (n = 5). The mean age was 11.9 years. Developmental disease (n = 48), inflammatory aortitis (n = 4), and iatrogenic trauma (n = 1) were suspected etiologies. Aortic coarctations were suprarenal (n = 37), intrarenal (n = 12), or infrarenal (n = 4). Patients often had coexisting occlusive disease of the splanchnic (n = 33) and renal (n = 46) arteries. RESULTS Major clinical manifestations included: aortic and renal artery-related secondary hypertension (n = 50), symptomatic lower extremity ischemia (n = 3), and intestinal angina (n = 3). Primary aortic reconstructive procedures included: thoracoabdominal bypass (n = 26), patch aortoplasty (n = 24), or an aortoaortic interposition graft (n = 3). Primary splanchnic (n = 19) or renal (n = 47) arterial reconstructions were performed as simultaneous (n = 45) or staged (n = 13) procedures in relation to the aortic surgery. Benefits existed regarding improved control of hypertension (n = 46), as well as elimination of extremity ischemia (n = 3) and mesenteric angina (n = 3). Secondary renal or splanchnic arterial reoperations (n = 8) were performed without mortality 5 days to 12 years postoperative for failed primary procedures. Secondary aortic procedures, 5 to 14 years postoperative, were performed for patch aortoplasties that became stenotic (n = 2) or aneurysmal (n = 1), and when thoracoabdominal bypasses developed an anastomotic narrowing (n = 1) or proved inadequate in size with patient growth (n = 1). No perioperative mortality accompanied either the primary or secondary aortic reconstructive procedures. CONCLUSION Abdominal aortic coarctation represents a complex vascular disease. Individualized treatment changed little over the period of study, remaining dependent on the pattern of anatomic lesions, patient age, and anticipated growth potential. This experience documented salutary outcomes exceeding 90% following carefully performed operative therapy.