ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGER GW150914

@article{Abbott2016ASTROPHYSICALIO,
  title={ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGER GW150914},
  author={Brad Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Matthew Robert Abernathy and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Carl Adams and Todd Adams and Paolo Addesso and Rana X. Adhikari and Vaishali B. Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and Koji Arai and M. C. Araya and C. C. Arceneaux and Joseph S. Areeda and Nicolas Arnaud and K. G. Arun and Stefano Ascenzi and Gregory Ashton and Melanie Ast and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and Peter Aufmuth and Carsten Aulbert and Stanislav Babak and Philippe Bacon and M. K. M. Bader and Paul T. Baker and F. Baldaccini and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and J. C. B. Barayoga and S. E. Barclay and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Fabrizio Barone and Bryan W Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and J. C. Batch and Christoph Baune and Viswanath Bavigadda and Marco Bazzan and Beate Behnke and Michał Bejger and Chris Belczynski and A. S. Bell and C. J. Bell and B. K. Berger and Jes Bergman and Gerald Bergmann and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and Joe Betzwieser and Swetha Bhagwat and R. Bhandare and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Jeremy Birch and Ross Birney and S{\'e}bastien Biscans and A. Bisht and Massimiliano Bitossi and Christopher Michael Biwer and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Steven Bloemen and Oliver Bock and T. P. Bodiya and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and Christina Bogan and Alejandro Boh{\'e} and P. Bojtos and Charlotte Z. Bond and F. Bondu and R. Bonnand and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Suvadeep Bose and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Vladimir B. Braginsky and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Tristan Briant and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Patrick Brockill and A. F. Brooks and D. A. Brown and Daniel D. Brown and Nic M. Brown and C. C. Buchanan and A. Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and D. Buskulic and Christelle Buy and Robert L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Kipp C. Cannon and Junwei Cao and C. D. Capano and E. Capocasa and Franco Carbognani and Santiago Caride and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Carlos Cepeda and Liala Baiardi and G. Cerretani and Elisa Cesarini and R. Chakraborty and Tara Chalermsongsak and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and Man Leong Chan and S. Chao and Philip R. Charlton and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Hsiao-Wen Chen and Yanbei Chen and C. Cheng and Andrea Chincarini and Antonino Chiummo and H. S. Cho and M. Cho and Jong H. Chow and Nelson Christensen and Qi Chu and Sheon S Y Chua and Shin Kee Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Filiberto Clara and James Alexander Clark and F. Cleva and Eugenio Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and Alberto Colla and Christophe Collette and Lynn R. Cominsky and Marcio Constancio and Andrea Conte and L Conti and Deborah J. Cook and Thomas R. Corbitt and Neil J. Cornish and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Peter Couvares and Edith Cowan and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Kieran Craig and Jolien D. E. Creighton and Jonathan Cripe and S. Gwynne Crowder and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and Tito Dal Canton and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and N. S. Darman and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and H. P. Daveloza and M. Davier and G. S. Davies and E J Daw and Richard N. Day and Daniel B. DeBra and Gergely Debreczeni and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Deleglise and Walter del Pozzo and Thomas Denker and Thomas Dent and H{\"u}sne Dereli and Vladimir Dergachev and R. T. Derosa and Riccardo DeSalvo and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D{\'i}az and L. Di Fiore and Matteo di Giovanni and Alberto Di Lieto and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Angela Di Virgilio and Goran Dojcinoski and Vincent Dolique and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Rebecca Douglas and Turlough P. Downes and M. Drago and Ronald W. P. Drever and J C Driggers and Zhihui Du and M. Ducrot and Sheila E. Dwyer and Tega Boro Edo and Matthew C. Edwards and Anamaria Effler and Heinz-Bernd Eggenstein and Phil Ehrens and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and W. Engels and Reed Essick and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and R. Everett and M. Factourovich and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and Qi Fang and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and Henning Fehrmann and Martin M. Fejer and I. Ferrante and E. C. Ferreira and Federico Ferrini and Francesco Fidecaro and Irene Fiori and D Fiorucci and Rebecca Fisher and R. Flaminio and Mark Fletcher and J.-D. Fournier and Stefaan Franco and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and Volker Frey and T. T. Fricke and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Jonathan R. Gair and Luca Gammaitoni and Sampada Gaonkar and F. Garufi and Alberto Gatto and G. Gaur and Neil Gehrels and Gianluca Gemme and Bruce Gendre and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Julia George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and Vincent Germain and Archisman Ghosh and Soumya K. Ghosh and J. A. Giaime and K. D. Giardina and A. Giazotto and Karl Gill and A. Glaefke and E Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and L. Gond{\'a}n and Gabriela Gonz{\'a}lez and J. M. Gonzalez Castro and A. Gopakumar and N. A. Gordon and Michael L. Gorodetsky and Sarah E. Gossan and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and Christian Graef and Philip Graff and Massimo Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and Paul J. Groot and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and G. Guidi and X. Guo and A. Gupta and M. Gupta and Kaitlin E. Gushwa and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and Jan J. Hacker and Bernard Hall and Evan D. Hall and Giles D. Hammond and Maria Haney and M. M. Hanke and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and James E. Hanson and Terra Hardwick and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and M. J. Hart and Michael T. Hartman and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Haughian and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and John Hennig and Alastair Heptonstall and Michele Heurs and Stefan Hild and David C. Hoak and Kari Alison Hodge and David Jonathan Hofman and Sophie Elizabeth Hollitt and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Philip F. Hopkins and D. J. Hosken and James Hough and E. Alasdair Houston and E J Howell and Y. M. Hu and S. Huang and Eliu A. Huerta and Dominique Huet and Barbara J. Hughey and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and T. Huynh--Dinh and Ashikuzzaman Idrisy and Nathaniel M. Indik and D. R. Ingram and Ra Inta and Hafizah Noor Isa and J. M. Isac and Maximiliano Isi and Gabriela Islas and Tomoki Isogai and Bala R. Iyer and Kiwamu Izumi and T. Jacqmin and H. J. Jang and Karan Jani and Piotr Jaranowski and S. Jawahar and F. Jim{\'e}nez-Forteza and W. W. Johnson and D. I. Jones and Richard Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and K. Haris and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vicky Kalogera and Shivaraj Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah B. Kanner and Sudarshan Karki and Marie Kasprzack and Erotokritos Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Steffen Kaufer and Tejinder Kaur and Keita Kawabe and Fumiko Kawazoe and Fabien K{\'e}f{\'e}lian and Marcel S. Kehl and David Keitel and David Bruce Kelley and William P. Kells and Ross Kennedy and Joey Shapiro Key and Alexander Khalaidovski and Farid Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and Z. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and N Kijbunchoo and C. Kim and Jinsook Kim and Kwang S. Kim and Namjun Kim and Namjun Kim and Y. -M. Kim and E. J. King and Peter King and D. L. Kinzel and J. S. Kissel and L. Kleybolte and Sergey Klimenko and S. M. Koehlenbeck and Keiko Kokeyama and Soumen Koley and V. T. Kondrashov and Antonios Kontos and Mikhail Korobko and William Z Korth and Izabela Jonek Kowalska and Darby Kozak and V. Kringel and Badri Krishnan and Andrzej Kr{\'o}lak and C. Krueger and G. Kuehn and P. Kumar and L. Kuo and Adam Kutynia and Benjamin D. Lackey and Michael Landry and Jacob Lange and Brian Lantz and Paul D. Lasky and Albert Lazzarini and C Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and Eric O. Lebigot and Chang-Hwan Lee and H. K. Lee and Ho Lee and K. H. Lee and Amber K Lenon and Matteo Leonardi and Jonathan Leong and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and Yuri Levin and Brahm Levine and Tjonnie Guang Feng Li and Adam A. Libson and Tyson B. Littenberg and N. A. Lockerbie and Joshua Logue and A. L. Lombardi and Janet E. Lord and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Harald L{\"u}ck and Andrew Lundgren and J. Luo and Ryan Christopher Lynch and Yiqiu Ma and T. Macdonald and Bernd Machenschalk and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and Fabian Maga{\~n}a-Sandoval and Ryan Magee and M. Mageswaran and E. Majorana and I. Maksimovic and Valeria Malvezzi and Na Man and Ilya Mandel and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Fabio Marchesoni and F. Marion and Szabolcs M{\'a}rka and Zsuzsanna Marka and Ashot Markosyan and Edward Maros and F. Martelli and Lionel Martellini and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and Denis Martynov and J. N. Marx and K. O. Mason and A. Masserot and Thomas J. Massinger and M. Masso-Reid and F. Matichard and Luca Matone and Nergis Mavalvala and N. Mazumder and Giulio Mazzolo and Robert McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Scott McCormick and Scott C. McGuire and G. McIntyre and Jess McIver and David J. McManus and S. T. McWilliams and Duncan Meacher and Grant David Meadors and Jeroen Meidam and Andrew Melatos and Greg Mendell and D. Mendoza-Gandara and R. A. Mercer and E. L. Merilh and Mourad Merzougui and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Cody Messick and Patrick M. Meyers and Federica Mezzani and Haixing Miao and Christine Michel and Hannah Middleton and Eugeniy Mikhailov and Leopoldo Milano and Jon M. Miller and M Millhouse and Yury Minenkov and Jin Ming and Saeed Mirshekari and Chandra Kant Mishra and Subhasish Mitra and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Andrea Moggi and M. Mohan and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and M. Montani and B. C. Moore and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Gerardo Moreno and S. R. Morriss and Kasem Mossavi and B. Mours and Conor M Mow-Lowry and C. L. Mueller and Guido Mueller and Alistair William Muir and Arunava Mukherjee and Dipanjan Mukherjee and Soma Mukherjee and Nikhil Mukund and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and David Murphy and P. G. Murray and Antonis Mytidis and Ilaria Nardecchia and L. Naticchioni and Rabindranath Nayak and Valentin Necula and Kalina V Nedkova and Gijs Nelemans and MorgantiN. Neri and Ansel Neunzert and G. P. Newton and Thuy Trang Nguyen and Alex Buus Nielsen and Samaya M. Nissanke and Alexander H. Nitz and F. Nocera and Dan Nolting and Marc Eric Normandin and Laura Nuttall and Jason Oberling and Evan Ochsner and Joseph O'Dell and Eric Oelker and G. H. Ogin and John J. Oh and Seog Oh and Frank Ohme and Miquel Oliver and Patrick Oppermann and Richard J. Oram and Brian O'reilly and Richard O’Shaughnessy and Christian D. Ott and David J. Ottaway and R. S. Ottens and Harry Overmier and B. J. Owen and Archana Pai and Sanjay A. Pai and Jordan Palamos and O. V. Palashov and Cristiano Palomba and A. Pal-Singh and Huang Wei Pan and Christopher Pankow and Francesco Pannarale and Bhasker Pant and Federico Paoletti and Angela Delli Paoli and Maria Alessandra Papa and H. R. Paris and William Parker and Daniela Pascucci and A. Pasqualetti and R. 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Rapagnani and V Raymond and Massimiliano Razzano and Virginia Re and Jocelyn Read and C. M. Reed and Tania Regimbau and Luca Rei and Stuart Reid and David Reitze and H. Rew and S. Sanchez Reyes and F. Ricci and Keith Riles and N. A. Robertson and Raymond Robie and Florent Robinet and Alessandro Rocchi and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins and Vincent Roma and J. D. Romano and Rocco Romano and Gleb Romanov and J. H. Romie and Dorota Rosinska and Sheila Rowan and A. O. R{\"u}diger and P. Ruggi and Kris Ryan and Surabhi Sachdev and Travis Sadecki and Laleh Sadeghian and Livio Salconi and M. Saleem and Francesco Salemi and Anuradha Samajdar and Letizia Sammut and E. J. Sanchez and V. D. Sandberg and B. Sandeen and Joyce Sanders and Beno{\^i}t Sassolas and Bangalore Sathyaprakash and Peter Saulson and O. E. S. Sauter and Richard L. Savage and A. Sawadsky and Paul Schale and Roland Schilling and Jan Schmidt and Patricia Schmidt and Roman Schnabel and Robert M. S. 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Stephens and Simon Stevenson and Robert Stone and Kenneth Strain and Nicolas Straniero and Giulia Stratta and N. A. Strauss and Sergey Strigin and Riccardo Sturani and Al. Stuver and Tiffany Summerscales and Liang Sun and P. Sutton and Bas Swinkels and Marek J. Szczepańczyk and Matteo Tacca and Dipongkar Talukder and David B. Tanner and M. T{\'a}pai and S. P. Tarabrin and Andrea Taracchini and Robert W. Taylor and Thomas Theeg and Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam and E. G. Thomas and Margot Thomas and Pieter Thomas and Keith A. Thorne and Kip S. Thorne and Eric Thrane and Suresh Tiwari and Vaibhav Tiwari and K. Tokmakov and C. Tomlinson and Mauro Tonelli and Cristina Torres and C. I. Torrie and Daniel T{\"o}yr{\"a} and Flavio Travasso and Gary Traylor and Daniele Trifir{\`o} and Maria Concetta Tringali and Lucia Trozzo and M. Tse and M Turconi and Darkhan Tuyenbayev and Dennis Wayne Ugolini and C. S. Unnikrishnan and Alexander L. Urban and S. A. Usman and Henning Vahlbruch and Gabriele Vajente and Guillermo Valdes and Niels Anton van Bakel and Martinus van Beuzekom and J. F. J. van den Brand and Chris van den Broeck and Daniel Vander-Hyde and Laura van der Schaaf and Joris van Heijningen and A. A. van Veggel and M Vardaro and Steve Vass and M{\'a}ty{\'a}s Vas{\'u}th and Ruslan Vaulin and Alberto Vecchio and Gabriele Vedovato and John Veitch and Peter J. Veitch and Krishna Venkateswara and D. Verkindt and F. Vetrano and Andrea Vicer{\`e} and Serena Vinciguerra and David Vine and J.-Y. Vinet and Salvatore Vitale and Thomas Vo and Helios Vocca and Cheryl Vorvick and Daniel Voss and W. D. Vousden and Sergey P. Vyatchanin and Andrew R. Wade and Leslie E. Wade and Madeline Wade and Marissa Walker and L. Wallace and Sin'ead Walsh and G. Wang and Haining Wang and Mei Wang and Xianyou Wang and Yanzhi Wang and Robert L. Ward and Jimmy Warner and Michal Was and Betsy Weaver and L. W. Wei and Michael Weinert and A. J. R. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Timothy A. Welborn and Linqing Wen and Peter Wessels and Tobias Westphal and Karl Wette and James Whelan and Darren J. White and Bernard Whiting and Roy Williams and Andrew Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and M. H. Wimmer and Walter Winkler and Christopher C. Wipf and Holger Wittel and Graham Woan and John R. Worden and J. Lenore Wright and G. Wu and Joshua Yablon and William Yam and H. Yamamoto and Cregg C. Yancey and Min Jet Yap and Haocun Yu and M. Yvert and Adam Zadrożny and Laura Zangrando and Michele Zanolin and Jean Pierre Zendri and Michael Zevin and Fan Zhang and L. Zhang and M. Zhang and Y. Zhang and Chunnong Zhao and Minchuan Zhou and Zifan Zhou and Xing-Jiang Zhu and Michael Edward Zucker and Sarah Zuraw and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2016},
  volume={818},
  pages={1-15}
}
The discovery of the gravitational-wave source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black-hole systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the Universe. Such black-hole mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively "heavy… 

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