author={S. Christopher Bennett},
Abstract For more than 100 years, most pterosaur workers have accepted the traditional reconstruction of the pteroid, articulated in the fovea of the preaxial carpal and directed medially along the anterior margin of a small propatagium in order to control it. A few workers have rejected the traditional reconstruction and advocated an alternative reconstruction with the pteroid directed anteriorly and controlling a large propatagium extending laterally past the wrist. Articulated specimens of a… 

Biomechanics of the unique pterosaur pteroid

  • C. PalmerG. Dyke
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2009
It is demonstrated quantitatively that the more traditional reconstruction of a medially orientated pteroid was much more stable both structurally and aerodynamically, reflecting likely life position.

The Extent of the Pterosaur Flight Membrane

It is strongly suggested that the trailing edge of the wing extended down to the lower leg or ankle in all specimens where the brachiopatagium is completely preserved, and is thus likely to have been universally present throughout the Pterosauria.

Functional morphology of Quetzalcoatlus Lawson 1975 (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea)

The proportions and possible motions of the skeleton of the giant azhdarchid pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus are reconstructed, finding that despite the animal’s great size, the hind limb to torso length ratio is the greatest for all known pterosaurs.

The toothless pterosaur Jidapterus edentus (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea) from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota and its paleoecological implications

The osteology of Jidapterus edentus further supports the close relationship of the Chaoyangopteridae with the Azhdarchidae in sharing a high RI value and reduced and mildly-curved pedal unguals, and it also implies a possible paleoecological similarity in their terrestrial capability.

Palaeobiology, Morphology, and Flight Characteristics of Pterodactyloid Pterosaurs

The “crocodilian-like” sequence of suture closure between the neural arches and vertebral bodies of the thoracic vertebrae is confirmed within the azhdarchoid pterosaurs, indicating that the developmental timing between the Azhdarchoidea and Ornithocheiroidea did not significantly differ.

Three‐dimensional geometry of a pterosaur wing skeleton, and its implications for aerial and terrestrial locomotion

The joint analysis is consistent with a semi-erect quadrupedal model of terrestrial locomotion in the ornithocheirids and lends support to the idea that the pteroid – a long, slender wrist bone unique to pterosaurs that supported a membranous forewing – was directed forwards in flight, not towards the body.

Constraining pterosaur launch: range of motion in the pectoral and pelvic girdles of a medium-sized ornithocheiraean pterosaur

Launch is the most energetically expensive part of flight and is considered a limiting factor in the size of modern flyers. Pterosaurs reached significantly larger sizes than modern flyers and are

The oldest azhdarchoid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone (Early Tithonian) of Southern Germany

Based on an almost complete three-dimensionally preserved skeleton, a new genus and species of an azhdarchoid pterosaur Aurorazhdarcho primordius n.gen. n.sp. from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen

New long-tailed pterosaurs (Wukongopteridae) from western Liaoning, China.

Two almost complete long-tailed pterosaurs from the Linglongta, Jianchang County, western Liaoning, China, are described and represent new taxa referred to the non-pterodactyloid clade Wukongopteridae, suggesting that they might have occupied slightly different ecological niches.

Sailing the skies: the improbable aeronautical success of the pterosaurs

The forewing, supported by the unique pteroid bone, would have reduced the wings' geometric twist, and has been shown in wind tunnel tests to improve membrane stability at low angles of attack and dramatically increase the maximum lift coefficient at high angle of attack.



High lift function of the pteroid bone and forewing of pterosaurs

The pteroid bone is a rod-like element found only in pterosaurs, the flying reptiles of the Mesozoic. It articulated at the wrist, and supported a membranous forewing in front of the inner part of

Morphological evolution of the pectoral girdle of pterosaurs: myology and function

  • S. Bennett
  • Biology
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 2003
Abstract The musculature of the pectoral region of representative rhamphorhynchoid (Campylognathoides) and large pterodactyloid (Anhanguera) pterosaurs was reconstructed in order to examine the

III.—The Fingers of Pterodactyls

As is well known, all pterodactyls have three small, unguiculate fingers on the radial side of the patagial finger, evidently used in the support of the body, possibly also in prehension and

On the nature of the pteroid in pterosaurs

Three lines of evidence indicate that the pteroid is a true bone, rather than ossified cartilage, in pterosaurs, and may be a modified carpal, the first metacarpal, or a neomorph.

Biomechanics of Pteranodon

The fossil evidence is re-examined to determine the structure of Pteranodon ingens, and it is suggested that extinction could have been due to climatic change, particularly an increase in the average wind speed at the end of the Cretaceous.

A second specimen of the pterosaurAnurognathus ammoni

A cladistic analysis supports the interpretation that the Anurognathidae is the sister-group to all other pterosaurs, and concludes that the Schwester-Gruppe aller anderen Flugsaurier sind.

A large pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Two Medicine Formation (Campanian) of Montana

This is probably the second largest pterosaur yet known of Campanian age; its size is intermediate between the largest Pteranodon and Quetzalcoatlus northropi.

Appendicular myology of the hadrosaurian dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Montana

  • D. Dilkes
  • Environmental Science
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences
  • 1999
Abstract Musculature of the pectoral and pelvic appendages and girdles of adult and nestling Maiasaura peeblesorum (Dinosauria: Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Montana is

The Wing-Finger of Pterodactyls, with Restoration of Nyctosaurus

The question whether the wing-finger of pterodactyls is the fourth or the fifth has been disputed for the past eighty years, though for the past forty years authors have been almost unanimously

Middle- and bottom-decker Cretaceous pterosaurs: unique designs in active flying vertebrates

Abstract Among Pterosauria there are three types of scapulocoracoid construction. In the ornithocheirid scapulocoracoid the scapula is oriented almost horizontally; it is shorter than the coracoid