author={Erik Bengtsson and Anna Missiaia and Mats-Olov Olsson and Patrick Svensson},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of History},
  pages={27 - 52}
The role of the European nobility and their ability to retain their political and economic power are part of the debate on the modernization of Europe’s economy. This paper contributes to the literature by exploring the wealth of the Swedish nobility as the country evolved from an agrarian to an industrial economy. We use a sample of 200+ probate inventories of nobles for each of the benchmark years 1750, 1800, 1850 and 1900. We show that the nobility, less than 0.5 per cent of the population… 
Mercantilist inequality: wealth and poverty in Stockholm, 1650–1750 †
This paper maps social structure, poverty, wealth and economic inequality in Stockholm from 1650 to 1750. We begin by establishing the social structure, using census data and other sources. To study
Peasant Aristocrats? Wealth, Social Status and the Politics of Swedish Farmer Parliamentarians 1769–1895
ABSTRACT Sweden was unique in early modern Europe, in that its parliament included a peasant farmer estate. It is commonplace in Swedish and international research to consider the peasant farmer
The wealth of the Swedish peasant farmer class (1750–1900): composition and distribution
Abstract Using about 1,730 probate inventories, this article studies the wealth of peasant farmers in Sweden for the years 1750, 1800, 1850 and 1900. Average wealth grew rapidly, tripling over the
‘Over-indebtedness’ – or not? Household debt accumulation and risk exposure in nineteenth century Sweden
  • H. Lindgren
  • Economics
    Scandinavian Economic History Review
  • 2021
ABSTRACT In light of the ongoing extensive discussion concerning the increasing financial risk levels of the household sector in modern, credit-based societies, this study explores the level and
Noblemen in business in the nineteenth century: the survival of an economic elite?*
Abstract This editorial introduces the 10 articles included in the special issue on ‘Noblemen-entrepreneurs in the Nineteenth Century. Investments, Innovation, Management and Networks’. The collected
Unfree labour by free peasants: labour service in the Swedish and Finnish countryside, from the late seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries
Abstract This article discusses the received image of free Swedish and Finnish peasants, charting parallels with peasants in the Baltic region. It draws upon the post-Cold War discussion of free and
Agriculture and nobility in Lombardy. Land, management and innovation (1815-1861)
Abstract This article aims to reassess the contribution of the nobility in the nineteenth-century economic transformation of Lombardy in northern Italy, focusing on its role in agricultural


Wealth Inequality in Sweden, 1750–1900
This article examines the evolution of wealth inequality in Sweden from 1750 to 1900, contributing both to the debate on early modern and modern inequality and to the general debate on the pattern of
The Politics of the Prussian Nobility: The Development of a Conservative Ideology, 1770-1848
Measured by its capacity to endure, the Prussian nobility was the most successful in the modern history of continental Europe. Throughout the long vicissitudes of its history, this class--the
Wealth Concentration over the Path of Development: Sweden, 1873–2006
We study wealth concentration in Sweden over 130 years, from the beginning of industrialization until the present day. Our series are based on new evidence from estate and wealth tax data, foreign
Wealth Concentration in a Developing Economy: Paris and France, 1807-1994
Using large samples of estate tax returns, we construct new series on wealth concentration in Paris and France from 1807 to 1994. Inequality increased until 1914 because industrial and financial
Lineages of the Absolutist State
The political nature of Absolutism has long been a subject of controversy within historical materialism. Developing considerations advanced in Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism, this book situates
Real inequality in Europe since 1500
Introducing a concept of real, as opposed to nominal, inequality of income or wealth suggests some historical reinterpretations, buttressed by a closer look at consumption by the rich. The purchasing
Business as usual: Nobility and landed estates in Sweden
The majority of European countries which have had an important tradition of manorialism have undergone profound land reforms, redistributing land from large landowners and giving small-scale farmers
The use of probate inventories as indicators of personal wealth during the period of industrialization: The financial resources of the Finnish rural population 1850–1911
Abstract Probate inventories have long been used as a historical source. In the early decades of this century they were employed for studies of Finnish cultural history. Local historians began to
The Son Also Rises: Surnames and the History of Social Mobility
How much of our fate is tied to the status of our parents and grandparents? How much does this influence our children? More than we wish to believe. While it has been argued that rigid class
The Age of Revolution
In the 1960s and 1970s leading historians—R. R. Palmer, Eric Hobsbawm, David Brion Davis--began speaking of an “Age of Revolution” extending from late eighteenth to the mid nineteenth centuries. The