ARE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS CAUSED BY BLUE SUPERGIANT COLLAPSARS, NEWBORN MAGNETARS, OR WHITE DWARF TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS?

@article{Ioka2016AREUG,
  title={ARE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS CAUSED BY BLUE SUPERGIANT COLLAPSARS, NEWBORN MAGNETARS, OR WHITE DWARF TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS?},
  author={Kunihito Ioka and Kenta Hotokezaka and Tsvi Piran},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2016},
  volume={833}
}
Ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (ulGRBs) are a new population of GRBs with extreme durations of ∼104 s. Leading candidates for their origin are blue supergiant collapsars, magnetars, and white dwarf tidal disruption events (WD-TDEs) caused by massive black holes (BHs). Recent observations of supernova-like (SN-like) bumps associated with ulGRBs challenged both the WD-TDE and the blue supergiant models because of the detection of SNe and the absence of hydrogen lines, respectively. We propose that… 
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