author={Simon Michael Outram and George T. H. Ellison},
  journal={Journal of Biosocial Science},
  pages={83 - 102}
Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health were developed using in-depth qualitative interviews with editorial staff from nineteen genetics journals, focusing on the methodological and conceptual mechanisms required to make race/ethnicity a genetic variable. As such, these analyses explore how and why race/ethnicity comes to be used in the context of genetic research, set against the background of continuing critiques from… 
Genes, race and research ethics: who’s minding the store?
Given the general vagueness and imprecision among these researchers regarding their use of these variables, they do not seem well equipped for such an undertaking, it would seem imperative that research ethicist move forward to develop specific policies and practices to assure the scientific integrity of genetic research on biological differences between population groups.
Inclusion of Racial and Ethnic Minorities in Genetic Research: Advance the Spirit by Changing the Rules?
The findings suggest that the policy restricts how scientists use racial and ethnic categories to define and report their study populations and does little to motivate their efforts to increase the inclusion of non-European ancestral populations in genetic and genomic research.
Race and ancestry in biomedical research: exploring the challenges
The nature of the race controversy in the context of biomedical research is reviewed and several challenges to policy action are highlighted, including restrictions resulting from commercial or regulatory considerations, the difficulty in presenting precise terminology in the media, and drifting or ambiguous definitions of key terms.
Essential(ist) medicine: promoting social explanations for racial variation in biomedical research
It is argued that greater social acuity allows scientists to avoid individualising and racialising health, challenge preconceived assumptions about the meaning of racial variation in health and medicine and thus promote and strengthen a socioenvironmental focus on how to best improve individuals’ and population health.
The Nature/Culture of Genetic Facts*
It is argued that a principal contribution of anthropology to the study of human heredity lies in the ontology of genetic facts, which have cultural information integrated into them, not layered on them.
Race/ethnicity and fracture risk assessment: an issue that is more than skin deep.
  • W. LeslieB. Lentle
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry
  • 2006
A critical review of racial/ethnic variables in osteoporosis and bone density research
More rigorous examination of what race/ethnicity actually captures, more careful definitions of group labels and the procedures for assigning them, and attention to the limitations of how such variables can reliably be used in data analyses is needed to help address the problems and issues outlined in this review.
“The Red Man and the White Plague”: Rethinking Race, Tuberculosis, and American Indians, ca. 1890–1950
  • C. McMillen
  • Medicine
    Bulletin of the history of medicine
  • 2008
From the time it emerged as an epidemic in the last decades of the nineteenth century until it had become their number-one health problem in the 1950s, multiple explanations for the etiology of
Infertility in British South Asian communities: negotiating the community and the clinic.
This thesis was designed to exlore the social meanings of infertility in British South Asian communities, and the infertility experiences of individual South Asian women.


Radical contextualization: contributions to an anthropology of racial/ethnic health disparities
This work examines anthropological research and practice that constitute core contributions to an anthropology of racial/ethnic health disparities and identifies the following themes: using ethnography as a tool for new inequality knowledge; studying up; and formulating alternative models of biosocial pathogenesis.
‘Population profiling’ and public health risk: When and how should we use race/ethnicity?
The limited reliability of race/ethnicity and the sensitivity surrounding its use to stereotype, discriminate and rationalize difference suggest it should not be used in population profiling for
Paradigm lost: race, ethnicity, and the search for a new population taxonomy.
The historically central role of racial categorization and its relationship to racism in the United States is examined and whether dropping "race" from population taxonomies is either possible or, at least in the short run, preferable is questioned.
Genetic Nature/Culture: Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide
This book discusses anthropology in an age of genetics: practice, discourse, and critique, as well as reflections and prospects for anthropological genetics in South Africa, and the implications for disease gene mapping and identity.
Why genes don't count (for racial differences in health).
  • A. Goodman
  • Biology
    American journal of public health
  • 2000
There is a paradoxical relationship between "race" and genetics. Whereas genetic data were first used to prove the validity of race, since the early 1970s they have been used to illustrate the
Bodily Differences and Collective Identities: the Politics of Gender and Race in Biomedical Research in the United States
Debates that underlie the inclusion of women and members of racial and ethnic minority groups as experimental subjects in biomedical research in the United States are analyzed.
Social identities and the 'new genetics': Scientific and social consequences
The use of social identities in genetic research is increasing, yet for the most part their use remains untheorized. The possible consequences of this practice extend beyond the essentialization of
Aids, race and the limits of science.
How a drug becomes "ethnic": law, commerce, and the production of racial categories in medicine.
  • J. Kahn
  • Medicine
    Yale journal of health policy, law, and ethics
  • 2004
This article is a retrospective analysis of how law, commerce, science, and medicine interacted to produce a distinctive understanding of BiDil as an ethnic drug, shaping which questions got asked at critical junctures in its development and orienting how they were pursued.
Blood will tell (won't it?): a century of molecular discourse in anthropological systematics.
  • J. Marks
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1994
Current data bearing on the molecular relationships of the apes are note-worthy for their diversity in quality, and need to be evaluated in the light of molecular and microevolutionary theory.