ANIMALS MIX IT UP TOO: THE DISTRIBUTION OF SELF-FERTILIZATION AMONG HERMAPHRODITIC ANIMALS

@inproceedings{Jarne2006ANIMALSMI,
  title={ANIMALS MIX IT UP TOO: THE DISTRIBUTION OF SELF-FERTILIZATION AMONG HERMAPHRODITIC ANIMALS},
  author={Philippe Jarne and Josh R Auld},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
  year={2006}
}
Abstract Excluding insects, hermaphroditism occurs in about one-third of animal species, providing numerous opportunities for the evolution of selfing. Here we provide an overview of reproductive traits in hermaphroditic animal species, review the distribution of selfing rates in animals, and test for ecological correlates of selfing. Our dataset (1342 selfing-rate estimates for 142 species) is 97% based on estimates derived from the analysis of population structure (FIS-estimates) using… 

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Hermaphroditism in fish: incidence, distribution and associations with abiotic environmental factors

TLDR
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TLDR
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Hypodermic self-insemination as a reproductive assurance strategy

TLDR
It is found that the spatial distribution of received sperm in vivo differs radically between conditions allowing or preventing outcrossing, implying that isolated individuals use their needle-like stylet (male copulatory organ) to inject own sperm into their anterior body region, including into their own head, from where they then apparently migrate to the site of (self-)fertilization.
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