AMPK activates autophagy by phosphorylating ULK1.

@article{Mao2011AMPKAA,
  title={AMPK activates autophagy by phosphorylating ULK1.},
  author={Kai Mao and Daniel J. Klionsky},
  journal={Circulation research},
  year={2011},
  volume={108 7},
  pages={
          787-8
        }
}
### Phosphorylation of ULK1 (hATG1) by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Connects Energy Sensing to Mitophagy Egan et al Science . 2011;331:456–461. In eukaryotes, macroautophagy (hereafter, autophagy) functions as a highly conserved catabolic mechanism in which cytoplasm, including damaged organelles and protein aggregates, is sequestered into autophagosomes, double-membrane vesicles, for ultimate degradation and recycling in lysosomes. Autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years… 
AMPK regulates autophagy by phosphorylating BECN1 at threonine 388
TLDR
It is shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates autophagy by phosphorylating BECN1 at Thr388, uncovering a novel mechanism of Autophagy regulation.
Chaperone-like protein p32 regulates ULK1 stability and autophagy
TLDR
These findings highlight a cytoprotective role of p32 under starvation conditions by regulating ULK1 stability, and uncover a crucial role of the p32–ULK1-autophagy axis in coordinating stress response, cell survival and mitochondrial homeostasis.
TRPML1 links lysosomal calcium to autophagosome biogenesis through the activation of the CaMKKβ/VPS34 pathway
TLDR
It is shown that TRPML1 is a multistep regulator of autophagy that may be targeted for therapeutic purposes to treat LSDs and other autophagic disorders.
LC3-associated phagocytosis at a glance
TLDR
This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster detail the divergence of this distinctive mechanism from that of canonical autophagy by comparing and contrasting shared and unique components of each pathway.
Modulation of Autophagy by Calcium Signalosome in Human Disease
TLDR
The crosstalk between Ca2+ and autophagy has a central role in cellular homeostasis and survival during several physiologic and pathologic conditions and new promising approaches for preventing and treating human disorders emerge, including those based on the modulation of Ca2+.
Autophagy and LC3-Associated Phagocytosis Mediate the Innate Immune Response
TLDR
Higher eukaryotes has diversified into defense mechanism, capable of confronting immunological and pathogenic stress, and autophagy serves as a primordial response to both endogenous and exogenous distress.
Activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway plays an important role in autophagy during prion infection
TLDR
Activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway during prion infection contributes to autophagy activation in prion-infected brain tissues, in addition to the abolishment of the mTOR regulatory pathway.
Sigma-1 Receptor Activation Induces Autophagy and Increases Proteostasis Capacity In Vitro and In Vivo
TLDR
It is described, at the molecular level, for the first time, that pharmacological Sig-1R activation enhances the autophagic flux in human cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans and increases proteostasis capacity, ultimately ameliorating paralysis caused by protein aggregation in C. elegans.
Regulation of Autophagy in Parkinson’s Disease: Insights into New Therapeutic Targets
TLDR
The latest advances on autophagy involvement in PD etiopathogenesis are reviewed and potential disease-modifying strategies are discussed.
Role of the AMPK pathway in promoting autophagic flux via modulating mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases: Insight into prion diseases
TLDR
Control of mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via AMPK activation might be a useful therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative diseases to reinstate energy homeostasis and degrade misfolded proteins.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 12 REFERENCES
Phosphorylation of ULK1 (hATG1) by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Connects Energy Sensing to Mitophagy
TLDR
Reconstitution of ULK1-deficient cells with a mutant ULK2 that cannot be phosphorylated by AMPK revealed that such phosphorylation is required for mitochondrial homeostasis and cell survival during starvation.
AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1
TLDR
A molecular mechanism for regulation of the mammalian autophagy-initiating kinase Ulk1, a homologue of yeast ATG1, is demonstrated and a signalling mechanism for UlK1 regulation and autophagic induction in response to nutrient signalling is revealed.
The Association of AMPK with ULK1 Regulates Autophagy
TLDR
Results suggest that AMPK association with ULK1 plays an important role in autophagy induction, at least in part, by phosphorylation of raptor to lift the inhibitory effect of mTOR on the ULK 1 autophagic complex.
The role of the Atg1/ULK1 complex in autophagy regulation.
  • N. Mizushima
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in cell biology
  • 2010
TLDR
Through studies of the Atg1/ULK1 complex, the molecular mechanism by which (m)TORC1 regulates autophagy is now being clarified in detail.
The energy sensing LKB1–AMPK pathway regulates p27kip1 phosphorylation mediating the decision to enter autophagy or apoptosis
TLDR
LKB1–AMPK pathway-dependent phosphorylation of p27 at Thr 198 stabilizes p27 and permits cells to survive growth factor withdrawal and metabolic stress through autophagy, which may contribute to tumour-cell survival under conditions of growth factor deprivation, disrupted nutrient and energy metabolism, or during stress of chemotherapy.
A novel, human Atg13 binding protein, Atg101, interacts with ULK1 and is essential for macroautophagy
TLDR
The identification of the novel protein, Atg 101, and the validation of Atg13 and Atg101 as ULK1-interacting proteins, suggests an Atg1 complex is involved in the induction of macroautophagy in mammalian cells.
Is Autophagy in Response to Ischemia and Reperfusion Protective or Detrimental for the Heart?
TLDR
Both protective and detrimental functions of autophagy in the heart are provided and possible applications of current knowledge to the treatment of heart disease are discussed.
Distinct Roles of Autophagy in the Heart During Ischemia and Reperfusion: Roles of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Beclin 1 in Mediating Autophagy
TLDR
The results suggest that, in the heart, ischemia stimulates autophagy through an AMPK-dependent mechanism, whereas ischemIA/reperfusion stimulates autophile through a Beclin 1–dependent but AM PK-independent mechanism.
TAK1 activates AMPK‐dependent cytoprotective autophagy in TRAIL‐treated epithelial cells
TLDR
A novel signalling pathway that activates cytoprotective autophagy in untransformed human epithelial cells treated with TRAIL is shown, which is likely to have broad implications for the understanding of cellular control of energy homoeostasis as well as the resistance ofUntransformed cells against TRAIL‐induced apoptosis.
AMPK phosphorylation of raptor mediates a metabolic checkpoint.
TLDR
AMPK directly phosphorylates the mTOR binding partner raptor on two well-conserved serine residues, and this phosphorylation induces 14-3-3 binding to raptor, uncovering a conserved effector of AMPK that mediates its role as a metabolic checkpoint coordinating cell growth with energy status.
...
1
2
...