ADAPTATION OF DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID CHAMERION ANGUSTIFOLIUM TO ELEVATION BUT NOT LOCAL ENVIRONMENT

@article{Martin2013ADAPTATIONOD,
  title={ADAPTATION OF DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID CHAMERION ANGUSTIFOLIUM TO ELEVATION BUT NOT LOCAL ENVIRONMENT},
  author={Sara L. Martin and Brian C. Husband},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={2013},
  volume={67}
}
Polyploid organisms often have different geographic ranges than their diploid relatives. However, it is unclear whether this divergence is maintained by adaptation or results from historical differences in colonization. Here, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment with diploid and autotetraploid Chamerion angustifolium to test for adaptation at the ploidy and population level. In the Rocky Mountains, pure diploid populations occur at high elevations and pure autotetraploid populations… 

Climatic niche differences between diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae).

TLDR
The correspondence between the physiological tolerances of cytotypes, their climatic niches, and their geographic distributions suggests that physiological traits are at least partially responsible for differences in the realized climatic Niches of diploid and tetraploid C. angustifolium.

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TLDR
Minor effects of polyploidy on colonization of alpine stands and low genetic differentiation between the two cytotypes are found, mirroring recent divergence of the polyploids from the local diploid lineage and repeated reticulation events among the cytotypes.

Cytotype coexistence leads to triploid hybrid production in a diploid-tetraploid contact zone of Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae).

TLDR
Tetraploids regularly coexist with diploids in the contact zone and that this coexistence is likely promoted by both strong reproductive isolation and asymmetric intercytotype mating between diploid and tetraploid C. angustifolium.

Ecological niche differences between two polyploid cytotypes of Saxifraga rosacea

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The results support the hypotheses that different cytotypes may have different niches leading to spatial segregation, and that higher ploidy levels can result in a broader ecological niche and greater tolerance of more extreme conditions.

Niche differences may explain the geographic distribution of cytotypes in Erysimum mediohispanicum.

TLDR
The potential role of polyploidy in the ecological adaptation of E. mediohispanicum to both abiotic factors and biotic interactions is highlighted, with a clear geographic pattern in the distribution of cytotypes.

Conditions in Home and Transplant Soils Have Differential Effects on the Performance of Diploid and Allotetraploid Anthericum Species

TLDR
The results of the study did not support the general expectation that the polyploids should have a greater ability than the diploid ancestors to adapt to a wide range of conditions, and are in line with the observation that diploids occupy a wider range of environments than the allotetraploids in the system.

Reciprocal transplantations reveal strong niche differentiation among ploidy-differentiated species of the Senecio carniolicus aggregate (Asteraceae) in the easternmost Alps

TLDR
This study illustrates that there may be no clear-cut answer to the question if the resident or the higher ploid species shows superior performance in polyploid complexes, but rather suggests that relative performance may depend on life-history stage.

An experimental test of local adaptation among cytotypes within a polyploid complex

TLDR
The results suggest that differences in geographic ranges within the C. perfoliata complex reflect local adaptation of cytotypes, and support the idea that occasional polyploid cytotypes exhibit high fitness relative to other cytotypes and contribute to growing evidence supporting ecological differentiation of cytotype differentiation withinpolyploid complexes.

Divergence in Eco-Physiological Responses to Drought Mirrors the Distinct Distribution of Chamerion angustifolium Cytotypes in the Himalaya–Hengduan Mountains Region

TLDR
Diploid C. angustifolium is more tolerant of drought than hexaploid plants, ensuring the successful survival of the diploid at high altitudes, and may facilitate the species with different cytotypes to colonize new and large geographic ranges with heterogeneous environmental conditions.

No influence of water limitation on the outcome of competition between diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae)

TLDR
The results do not support the hypothesis that tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium plants are stronger competitors than diploids when water is limited, and competition may not be a general mechanism that causes segregation between diploid and polyploid cytotypes in nature.
...

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FITNESS DIFFERENCES AMONG DIPLOIDS, TETRAPLOIDS, AND THEIR TRIPLOID PROGENY IN CHAMERION ANGUSTIFOLIUM: MECHANISMS OF INVIABILITY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR POLYPLOID EVOLUTION

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