ACTH is a novel regulator of bone mass

@article{Isales2010ACTHIA,
  title={ACTH is a novel regulator of bone mass},
  author={Carlos M. Isales and Mone Zaidi and Harry C. Blair},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2010},
  volume={1192}
}
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is one of several peptide hormones derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). ACTH is a classic endocrine hormone, processed and secreted from the pituitary to stimulate cortisol production from the fasciculata cells in the adrenal gland. However, ACTH is also produced by other cells, including macrophages, at many sites in the body. ACTH binds to a specific member of the melanocortin receptor family, the MC2R. MC2R is expressed in osteoblastic cells… 

ACTH promotes chondrogenic nodule formation and induces transient elevations in intracellular calcium in rat bone marrow cell cultures via MC2-R signaling

The effects of ACTH in rat BMSC enriched for mesenchymal progenitors are consistent with an MC2-R signaling mechanism, with dexamethasone being capable of regulating components of the melanocortin system in these cells.

60 YEARS OF POMC: Adrenal and extra-adrenal functions of ACTH.

The pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plays a pivotal role in homeostasis and stress response and is thus the major component of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the mechanisms involved in steroid secretion are reviewed.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhance human osteogenesis in vitro by synergistically accelerating the expression of bone-specific genes.

  • I. TourkovaLi Liu H. Blair
  • Biology, Medicine
    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • 2017
The results point to the importance of ACTH in bone maintenance and that extra skeletal (renal) 1,25(OH)2D is required for bone mineralization despite 1α-hydroxylase expression by osteoblasts.

New insights into the physiology of bone regulation: the role of neurohormones.

This article reviews neurohormones with unambiguously catabolic effects on the skeleton, such as neuropeptide Y and neuromedin U and both cannabinoid systems (CB1 receptors in the brain and CB2 in bone tissue) are unequiviguously osteo-protective, especially with regard to the aging skeleton.

Regulated production of the pituitary hormone oxytocin from murine and human osteoblasts.

The effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone on alpha‐2‐macroglobulin in osteoblasts derived from human mesenchymal stem cells

The results showed that A2M expression in cells treated with ACTH was up‐regulated significantly compared to the control group, which promotes osteoblastic differentiation probably through TGF‐β induction.

Non-Canonical Effects of ACTH: Insights Into Adrenal Insufficiency

It is believed it is worth re-evaluating the role of ACTH considering its noncanonical effects on the adrenal gland itself and on extra-adrenal organs and tissues; however, this would not have been possible without the recent advances in the pertinent technologies.

Pituitary-bone connection in skeletal regulation

  • M. ZaidiLi Sun T. Yuen
  • Biology, Medicine
    Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
  • 2016
The interaction of growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) with bone is discussed.
...

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