ACTH is a novel regulator of bone mass

  title={ACTH is a novel regulator of bone mass},
  author={Carlos M. Isales and Mone Zaidi and Harry C. Blair},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is one of several peptide hormones derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). ACTH is a classic endocrine hormone, processed and secreted from the pituitary to stimulate cortisol production from the fasciculata cells in the adrenal gland. However, ACTH is also produced by other cells, including macrophages, at many sites in the body. ACTH binds to a specific member of the melanocortin receptor family, the MC2R. MC2R is expressed in osteoblastic cells… 

ACTH promotes chondrogenic nodule formation and induces transient elevations in intracellular calcium in rat bone marrow cell cultures via MC2-R signaling

The effects of ACTH in rat BMSC enriched for mesenchymal progenitors are consistent with an MC2-R signaling mechanism, with dexamethasone being capable of regulating components of the melanocortin system in these cells.

60 YEARS OF POMC: Adrenal and extra-adrenal functions of ACTH.

The pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plays a pivotal role in homeostasis and stress response and is thus the major component of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the mechanisms involved in steroid secretion are reviewed.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhance human osteogenesis in vitro by synergistically accelerating the expression of bone-specific genes.

  • I. TourkovaLi Liu H. Blair
  • Biology, Medicine
    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • 2017
The results point to the importance of ACTH in bone maintenance and that extra skeletal (renal) 1,25(OH)2D is required for bone mineralization despite 1α-hydroxylase expression by osteoblasts.

New insights into the physiology of bone regulation: the role of neurohormones.

This article reviews neurohormones with unambiguously catabolic effects on the skeleton, such as neuropeptide Y and neuromedin U and both cannabinoid systems (CB1 receptors in the brain and CB2 in bone tissue) are unequiviguously osteo-protective, especially with regard to the aging skeleton.

Regulated production of the pituitary hormone oxytocin from murine and human osteoblasts.

The effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone on alpha‐2‐macroglobulin in osteoblasts derived from human mesenchymal stem cells

The results showed that A2M expression in cells treated with ACTH was up‐regulated significantly compared to the control group, which promotes osteoblastic differentiation probably through TGF‐β induction.

Non-Canonical Effects of ACTH: Insights Into Adrenal Insufficiency

It is believed it is worth re-evaluating the role of ACTH considering its noncanonical effects on the adrenal gland itself and on extra-adrenal organs and tissues; however, this would not have been possible without the recent advances in the pertinent technologies.

Pituitary-bone connection in skeletal regulation

  • M. ZaidiLi Sun T. Yuen
  • Biology, Medicine
    Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
  • 2016
The interaction of growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) with bone is discussed.



alpha -melanocyte-stimulating hormone is a novel regulator of bone.

It is concluded that alpha-MSH acts directly on bone, increasing bone turnover, and, when administered systemically, it decreases bone volume, the latter result may also be contributed to by alpha- MSH effects elsewhere, such as the adipocyte, pancreatic beta-cell, or central nervous system.

ACTH and its role in immune-neuroendocrine functions. A comparative study.

ACTH should be considered an important immuno-regulator, forming part of the complex mosaic of relationships between the immune and neuroendocrine system which appears to have been substantially maintained over the course of evolution.

Osteoblast-derived cells express functional glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptors.

It is reported that GIP receptor messenger RNA and protein are present in normal bone and osteoblast-like cell lines, and that high affinity receptors for GIP can be demonstrated by [125I]GIP binding studies.

11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a regulator of glucocorticoid response in osteoporosis.

  • M. Cooper
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • 2008
This review summarises the data relating to 11beta-HSD expression and activity in human bone and describes how this has implications for age-related, inflammation-associated, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates TNF production from immune cells to enhance osteoblast and osteoclast formation

It is proposed that hypogonadal bone loss is caused, at least in part, by enhanced FSH secretion, which in turn increases TNFα production to expand the number of bone marrow osteoclast precursors.

Regulatory Mechanisms of Corticotropin‐Releasing Hormone and Vasopressin Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus

CAMP‐response element‐binding protein phosphorylation may mediate transcriptional activation of both CRH and vasopressin genes, but the roles of AP‐1 and other transcription factors remain controversial.

Adrenocorticotropin, β-Endorphin, and β-Mipotropin in Normal Thyroid and Lung: Possible Implications for Ectopic Hormone Secretion

The expression of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene by normal lung and thyroid was examined by measurement of the content of ACTH, βMipotropin (βLPH), and β-endorphin ( βEP) in porcine Lung and thyroid tissue, suggesting that the common precursor POMC was processed predominantly to peptides other than ir-ACTH and ir- βEP.