ACE2 Cell Biology, Regulation, and Physiological Functions

@article{Turner2015ACE2CB,
  title={ACE2 Cell Biology, Regulation, and Physiological Functions},
  author={Anthony J. Turner},
  journal={The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)},
  year={2015},
  pages={185 - 189}
}
  • A. Turner
  • Published 24 April 2015
  • Biology
  • The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)
Abstract Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), discovered as a homologue of ACE, acts as its physiological counterbalance providing homeostatic regulation of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. ACE2 is a zinc metalloenzyme and carboxypeptidase located as an ectoenzyme on the surface of endothelial and other cells. While its primary substrate appears to be Ang II, it can hydrolyze a number of other physiological substrates. Additionally, ACE2 functions in other noncatalytic… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Molecules in pathogenesis: angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
TLDR
The genetics and functions of ACE2 are described, its various physiological functions in the renin–angiotensin system are explored, its role in the pathophysiology of disease is discussed and some of the unusual sequelae seen in COVID-19 are discussed. Expand
Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis of ACE2: A Potential Mechanism Contributing to COVID-19 Pathogenesis?
TLDR
This review focuses on the regulated proteolytic cleavage of ACE2 upon binding to inducer(s), the potential of cleaved ACE2 intracellular subdomain in regulating cellular function, and the ACE2’s immune-modulatory function. Expand
Multifunctional angiotensin converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor, and critical appraisal of its role in acute lung injury
TLDR
A complete understanding of this central enzyme may begin to explain the various symptoms and pathologies seen in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, and may aid in the development of novel treatments for COVID-19. Expand
Epigenetic regulation of ACE2, the receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
TLDR
The chemical and mechanical signal transduction pathways regulating the expression of the ACE2 gene and the epigenetic/chromatin features of the expressed gene are reviewed. Expand
ACE2 in the Era of SARS-CoV-2: Controversies and Novel Perspectives
TLDR
An overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on ACE2 biochemistry and pathophysiology is presented, outlining open issues in the context of COVID-19 disease and potential experimental and clinical developments. Expand
A comprehensive guide to the pharmacologic regulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor
The recent emergence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic has prompted scientists to address an urgent need for defining mechanisms of disease pathology and treatment. SevereExpand
Potential detrimental role of soluble ACE2 in severe COVID‐19 comorbid patients
TLDR
Monitoring sace2 and Ang II level in coronavirus disease 2019 comorbid patients are crucial to ensure safe and efficient intervention using therapeutic sACE2 and vaccines. Expand
Which ones, when and why should renin-angiotensin system inhibitors work against COVID-19?
TLDR
CO VID-19-phase-specific inhibition of different RAS enzymes is proposed as a pharmacological strategy against COVID-19 and vaccine-induced adverse effects to prevent the establishment of positive feedback-loops. Expand
Renin-angiotensin system and Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology: From the potential interactions to therapeutic perspectives.
TLDR
The link between AD and clinical conditions related to classical RAS axis overactivation supports the hypothesized role of this system in AD, and results of randomized controlled trials testing ACEi or ARBs in AD are awaited to elucidate whether AD-RAS interaction has implications on AD therapeutics. Expand
Anti-inflammatory drugs and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Current knowledge and potential effects on early SARS-CoV-2 infection
TLDR
Current knowledge on the RAAS and how it can be affected by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroid use at the organ and cellular levels are reviewed and scientific insights on how this mechanism can potentially affect SARS-CoV-2 infection in the early phases of disease are provided. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES
Multiple functions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its relevance in cardiovascular diseases.
TLDR
This review summarizes and discusses the structure and multiple functions of ACE2 and the relevance of this key enzyme in disease pathogenesis. Expand
Epigenetic regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by SIRT1 under conditions of cell energy stress.
TLDR
Western blotting and qPCR show that ACE2 expression is increased under conditions of cell stress, including hypoxic conditions, IL (interleukin)-1β treatment and treatment with the AMP mimic AICAR. Expand
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is subject to post-transcriptional regulation by miR-421.
TLDR
The present study is the first to demonstrate that ACE2 may be subject to post-transcriptional regulation and reveals a novel potential therapeutic target, miR-421, which could be exploited to modulate ACE2 expression in disease. Expand
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2: The First Decade
TLDR
In light of the entrance of human recombinant ACE2 into clinical trials, the potential use of ACE2 as a therapeutic is discussed and some pertinent questions that still remain unanswered are highlighted. Expand
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 Bind Integrins and ACE2 Regulates Integrin Signalling
TLDR
It is demonstrated that both ACE and ACE2 bind integrin subunits, in an RGD-independent manner, and that they can act as cell adhesion substrates, and this results suggest that ACE2 plays a role in cell-cell interactions, possibly acting to fine-tune integrin signalling. Expand
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: cardioprotective player in the renin-angiotensin system?
TLDR
It is now apparent that ACE2 contributes to the RAS through counterbalancing the action of ACE by converting angiotensin II to its metabolite angiotENSin-(1-7) which, probably through the Mas receptor, brings about its vasodilatory and antiproliferative actions. Expand
LPS activates ADAM9 dependent shedding of ACE from endothelial cells.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that ACE shedding from confluent endothelial cells is increased in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, but not phorbol esters, which is sensitive to inhibitors of translation, NF-κB, TNFα and TNFR-I/II. Expand
Identifying the regulatory element for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in human cardiofibroblasts
TLDR
The results suggest that the nucleotide sequences -516/-481 of human ace2 may be a binding domain for an as yet unidentified regulatory factor(s) that regulates ace2 expression and is associated with Ang II stimulation. Expand
Apelin is a positive regulator of ACE2 in failing hearts.
TLDR
It is found that ACE2 was downregulated in apelin-deficient mice, and ACE2 couples the RAS to the apelin system, adding a conceptual framework for theApelin-ACE2-angiotensin 1-7 axis as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. Expand
A Novel Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme–Related Carboxypeptidase (ACE2) Converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin 1-9
TLDR
The organ- and cell-specific expression of ACE2 and its unique cleavage of key vasoactive peptides suggest an essential role for ACE2 in the local renin-angiotensin system of the heart and kidney. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...