AATF, a novel transcription factor that interacts with Dlk/ZIP kinase and interferes with apoptosis 1

  title={AATF, a novel transcription factor that interacts with Dlk/ZIP kinase and interferes with apoptosis 
  author={Grit Page and Inga L{\"o}dige and Donat K{\"o}gel and Karl Heinz Scheidtmann},
  journal={FEBS Letters},

Dlk/ZIP kinase, a novel Ser/Thr‐specific protein kinase with multiple functions

Rather than being a proapoptotic kinase, Dlk/ZIP kinase participates in diverse and vital processes, and seems to play a role in mitosis, particularly cytokinesis.

Che-1/AATF, a multivalent adaptor connecting transcriptional regulation, checkpoint control, and apoptosis.

Several findings showed that Che-1 participates in inhibiting apoptotic process and emerges as an important adaptor that connects transcriptional regulation, cell-cycle progression, checkpoint control, and apoptosis.

TSG101 Interacts with Apoptosis-antagonizing Transcription Factor and Enhances Androgen Receptor-mediated Transcription by Promoting Its Monoubiquitination*

It is proposed that TSG101 activates androgen receptor-induced transcription by transient stabilization of the monoubiquitinated state, thus revealing a novel regulatory mechanism for nuclear receptors.

NRAGE associates with the anti-apoptotic factor Che-1 and regulates its degradation to induce cell death

Che-1 is a functional antagonist of NRAGE, because its overexpression completely reverts NRAGE-induced cell-death, and an EGFP-NRAGE fusion protein inhibits nuclear localization of Che-1 by sequestering it within the cytoplasmic compartment.

Link of Dlk/ZIP kinase to cell apoptosis and tumor suppression.

Emerging roles of AATF: Checkpoint signaling and beyond

A comprehensive overview of the role of AATF is provided and light is shed on its emerging roles underlining the potential use of A ATF as a novel biomarker and as an effective therapeutic target.

DAP-like kinase interacts with the rat homolog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe CDC5 protein, a factor involved in pre-mRNA splicing and required for G2/M phase transition.

This work reports on a new interaction partner, the rat homolog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe CDC5 protein, a presumptive transcription and splicing factor involved in the G(2)/M transition, and suggests that Dlk might play a role in coordinating specific transcription andsplicing events.

Zipper-interacting protein kinase is involved in regulation of ubiquitination of the androgen receptor, thereby contributing to dynamic transcription complex assembly

Results suggest that ZIPK has a crucial role in regulation of ubiquitination and degradation of the AR, and hence promoter clearance and efficient transcription.

DAP-kinase--protector or enemy in apoptotic cell death.




ZIP Kinase, a Novel Serine/Threonine Kinase Which Mediates Apoptosis

The catalytic domain of ZIP kinase is closely related to that of death-associated protein kinase (DAP kinase), which is a mediator of apoptosis induced by gamma interferon, therefore, both ZIP and DAP kinases represent a novel kinase family, which mediates apoptosis through their catalytic activities.

Cloning and characterization of Dlk, a novel serine/threonine kinase that is tightly associated with chromatin and phosphorylates core histones

Dlk seems to be tightly associated with insoluble nuclear structures, presumably chromatin, since it was resistant to various rigorous extraction procedures but it was partially released upon DNase I digestion of nuclei.

Presence of a potent transcription activating sequence in the p53 protein.

The p53 gene is frequently mutated in a wide variety of human cancers. However, the role of the wild-type p53 gene in growth control is not known. Hybrid proteins that contain the DNA binding domain

A Novel Family of Cys-Cys, His-Cys Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Expressed in Developing Nervous System and Pituitary Gland (*)

Results suggest that NZF-1 may exert regulatory roles in the developing and mature nervous system and in the pituitary gland, and a dispersed gene family encoding proteins containing Cys-Cys, His-CYS motifs.

Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively form DNA-binding heterodimers.

DNA binding studies reveal two mechanisms for generating further diversity from the ATF proteins, and results help to explain how a single promoter element, an ATF site, can be present in a wide variety of promoters.

DAP‐kinase is a Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent, cytoskeletal‐associated protein kinase, with cell death‐inducing functions that depend on its catalytic activity

DAP‐kinase is therefore a novel cytoskeletal‐associated cell death serine/threonine kinase whose activation by Ca2+/calmodulin may be linked to the biochemical mechanism underlying the cytOSkeletal alterations that occur during cell death.

BCL-2 family members and the mitochondria in apoptosis.

As the BCL-2 family members reside upstream of irreversible cellular damage and focus much of their efforts at the level of mitochondria, they play a pivotal role in deciding whether a cell will live or die, and it is argued that the amphipathic a-helical BH3 domain serves as a critical death domain in the pro-apoptotic members.

Evidence for a transcriptional activation function of BRCA1 C-terminal region.

It is shown that the C-terminal region, comprising exons 16-24 (aa 1560-1863) of BRCA1 fused to GAL4 DNA binding domain can activate transcription both in yeast and mammalian cells.

Functional dissection of VP16, the trans-activator of herpes simplex virus immediate early gene expression.

It is predicted that VP16 achieves IE gene specificity via protein: protein, rather than protein: DNA, interaction, according to the results presented in this and the accompanying paper.