AAPM's TG-51 protocol for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams.

@article{Almond1999AAPMsTP,
  title={AAPM's TG-51 protocol for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams.},
  author={Peter Richard Almond and Peter J. Biggs and Bert Coursey and William F. Hanson and Mohammed Saiful Huq and Ravinder Nath and David W. O. Rogers},
  journal={Medical physics},
  year={1999},
  volume={26 9},
  pages={
          1847-70
        }
}
A protocol is prescribed for clinical reference dosimetry of external beam radiation therapy using photon beams with nominal energies between 60Co and 50 MV and electron beams with nominal energies between 4 and 50 MeV. The protocol was written by Task Group 51 (TG-51) of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol uses ion chambers with absorbed-dose-to-water calibration… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Comparison of the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51 absorbed dose to water protocols in the dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams.
TLDR
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA TRS-398) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM TG-51) have published new protocols for the calibration of radiotherapy beams are compared by analysing in detail the differences in the basic data included in the two protocols for photon and electron beam dosimetry and determining the absorbed dose to water following the recommendations.
Recommendations for clinical electron beam dosimetry: supplement to the recommendations of Task Group 25.
TLDR
Task Group 70 was charged to reassess and update the recommendations in TG-25 to bring them into alignment with report TG-51 and to recommend new methodologies and procedures that would allow the practicing medical physicist to initiate and continue a high quality program in clinical electron beam dosimetry.
Commentary: the controversy between the IAEA Code of Practice and the TG-51 protocol.
  • A. Bielajew
  • Medicine, Physics
    Physics in medicine and biology
  • 2000
TLDR
This commentary draws attention to the article in this issue by Andreo, the latest, and probably not the last, published exchange in the debate, who takes issue with TG-51's photon beam quality index, PDD(10)x, arguing instead for the familiar TPR20,10.
Comparison of high-energy photon and electron dosimetry for various dosimetry protocols.
TLDR
The purpose of this work is to present the dose comparison between various Dosimetry protocols and the AAPM TG-51 protocol for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams.
The IPEM code of practice for electron dosimetry for radiotherapy beams of initial energy from 4 to 25 MeV based on an absorbed dose to water calibration.
TLDR
The electron dosimetry code improves consistency with the similar UK approach to megavoltage photon Dosimetry, in use since 1990, and provides reduced uncertainties, approaching 1% standard uncertainty in optimal conditions, and a simpler formalism than previous air kerma calibration based recommendations.
Reference dosimetry in clinical high-energy electron beams: comparison of the AAPM TG-51 and AAPM TG-21 dosimetry protocols.
TLDR
A comparison of the determination of absorbed dose to water in reference conditions with high-energy electron beams following the recommendations given in the AAPM TG-51 and in the original TG-21 dosimetry protocols has been made.
Comparison of Dosimetry Protocols for Electron Beam Radiotherapy Calibrations and Measurement Uncertainties
TLDR
It is suggested that in the use of the presently determined dose conversion factors across the IAEA TRS 398, AAPM TG 51 and DIN 6800-2 absorbed dose protocols, dose intercomparisons can be facilitated between radiotherapy centres.
Clinical reference dosimetry: comparison between AAPM TG-21 and TG-51 protocols.
TLDR
This study shows that the dose changes are within 1% for a cobalt beam, 0.5% for photon energies of 6 and 18 MV, and 2%-3% for electron beams with energies of6 to 20 MeV.
Implementation of TG-51: practical considerations
TLDR
The Radiological Physics Center made measurements on Varlan, GE, and Siemens units for 10 and 18 MV photons and 5-20 MeV electrons and revealed that the k/sub Q/ value, thus the calibration of the beam, will vary by no more than 0.2%.
Advances in the determination of absorbed dose to water in clinical high-energy photon and electron beams using ionization chambers.
TLDR
A comprehensive review of the dosimetry protocols based on these standards and of the intercomparisons of the different protocols published in the literature, discussing the reasons for the observed discrepancies between them.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES
AAPM protocol for 40-300 kV x-ray beam dosimetry in radiotherapy and radiobiology.
TLDR
A new protocol, developed by the Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 61, for reference dosimetry of low- and medium-energy x rays for radiotherapy and radiobiology is presented, based on ionization chambers calibrated in air in terms of air kerma.
The advantages of absorbed-dose calibration factors.
  • D. Rogers
  • Physics, Medicine
    Medical physics
  • 1992
TLDR
It is shown that basing clinical dosimetry on absorbed-dose calibration factors ND leads to considerable simplification and reduced uncertainty in dose measurement and it is also shown that the kQ approach simplifies the use of plastic phantoms in photon beams.
A comparison of the AAPM "Protocol for the determination of absorbed dose from high-energy photon and electron beams" with currently used protocols.
TLDR
A comparison of the AAPM "Protocol for the determination of absorbed dose from high-energy photon and electron beams" (TG21) with currently used protocols for electron and photon dosimetry is presented, emphasizing the dependence on chamber geometry, chamber composition, and phantom composition.
R50 as a beam quality specifier for selecting stopping-power ratios and reference depths for electron dosimetry.
For electron beam reference dosimetry in radiotherapy, it is shown that by choosing the reference depth as dref = 0.6R(50)-0.1 cm, where R50 is the half-value depth in centimeters, the Spencer-Attix
A new approach to electron-beam reference dosimetry.
  • D. Rogers
  • Physics, Medicine
    Medical physics
  • 1998
TLDR
A new approach is proposed for electron-beam dosimetry under reference conditions and data necessary to use this approach are presented and analytical expressions close to universal expressions for all cylindrical Farmer-like chambers and for well-guarded plane-parallel chambers respectively.
Correcting for electron contamination at dose maximum in photon beams.
  • D. Rogers
  • Physics, Medicine
    Medical physics
  • 1999
TLDR
It is shown that 20% variations in the foil thickness have a negligible effect on the calculated corrections, and a more convenient method of analyzing and using the data is presented.
Beam quality specification for photon beam dosimetry.
It is argued that %dd(10), the percentage depth dose at 10 cm in a 10 x 10 cm2 photon beam at a SSD of 100 cm, is a better beam quality specifier for radiotherapy beams than the commonly used values
The calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers for dosimetry of electron beams: an extension of the 1983 AAPM protocol report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 39.
TLDR
The use of the plane-parallel chambers follows the 1983 AAPM protocol for absorbed dose calibrations of electrons, except that new energy-dependent Prepl values are given for the Capintec PS-033 and PTW-Markus chambers consistent with the consensus of reports in the literature.
Absorbed dose beam quality factors for the dosimetry of high-energy photon beams
The parallelism before existing air kerma formalisms based on the 'absorbed dose to air' chamber factor, ND (or Ngas), and the more simple approach based on calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to
Calculation of stopping-power ratios using realistic clinical electron beams.
The Spencer-Attix water/air restricted mass collision stopping-power ratio is calculated in realistic electron beams in the energy range from 5-50 MeV for a variety of clinical accelerators including
...
...