A year's experience of Irukandji envenomation in far north Queensland

  title={A year's experience of Irukandji envenomation in far north Queensland},
  author={Mark Little and Richard F Mulcahy},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
Envenomation by the Irukandji jellyfish (Carukia barnesi) can result in an array of systemic symptoms known as Irukandji syndrome. In 1996, 62 people presented to Cairns emergency departments with Irukandji envenomation: 57 developed systemic symptoms, and 38 required parenteral narcotics. All patients were discharged home within 24.5 hours, except for two who required high‐dependence care for pulmonary oedema. Patients were more likely to be stung on hotter days, with lower‐than‐average… 

Cnidarian (coelenterate) envenomations in Hawai'i improve following heat application.

Cnidarian ( coelenterate ) envenomations in Hawai ’ i improve following application heat

Treatment with heat application appeared to provide better clinical improvement than parenteral analgesics or tranquillizers, particularly in patients with the Irukandji-like syndrome, the heat sensitivity of one or more of the Caybdea alata venom components might account for the effect of heat treatment.

Irukandji syndrome: a widely misunderstood and poorly researched tropical marine envenoming.

With an increase in medical knowledge and improved diagnosis of the condition, it appears that envenomations causing Irukandji syndrome are an increasing marine problem worldwide.

Envenomation with Skin Manifestations and Treatments

This review focuses on Jellyfish toxins, symptoms and treatment after sting in order to reduce treatment time, improve the survival rate for medical providers and to set a reference for follow-up study.

Retrospective study of jellyfish envenomation in emergency wards in Guadeloupe between 2010 and 2016: When to diagnose Irukandji syndrome?

Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies

Current knowledge of these envenoming syndromes, mechanisms of venom action and therapy, focusing on the deadly box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and the array of jellyfish thought to cause the Irukandji syndrome are reviewed.

Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, it is concluded that the majority of studies to date support theUse of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes.

A sting from an unknown jellyfish species associated with persistent symptoms and raised troponin I levels.

This case highlights the envenomation risks associated with marine recreation, and the need for critical evaluation of cardiac troponin assays and for further research in marine toxicology.

In reply: Fatal envenomation by jellyfish causing Irukandji syndrome

TO THE EDITOR: Interpretation of the report describing the first death attributed to the Irukandji syndrome should be tempered by the fact that significant unstated assumptions have been made in



Further understanding of, and a new treatment for, "Irukandji" (Carukia barnesi) stings.

Analysis of the large recorded numbers of swimmers who have been stung by the "Irukandji" jellyfish during the 1985-1986 summer season in north Queensland, and the results are discussed, shows that Diazepam relieves the anxiety which is part of the syndrome, but antihistamine agents and hydrocortisone seem to have no beneficial effect.

The “Irukandji syndrome” and acute pulmonary oedema

A treatment plan for a severe case of “Irukandji syndrome” involves pain relief; the management of apparent endogenous catecholamine excess; and the aggressive treatment of pulmonary oedema and hypoxia, which should include oxygen, Swan‐Ganz catheterization and consideration of early intubation with intermittent positive‐pressure ventilation, together with standard drug support.

Marine stingers in Far North Queensland

  • J. L. Holmes
  • Medicine
    The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • 1996
Two box jellyfish in particular cause problems in tropical Queensland waters and emergency treatment comprises inactivation of stinging capsules by vinegar, removal of tentacles, analgesia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the administration of the specific antivenom.


EDITORIAL NOTICES 934 ORIGINAL ARTIOLESPage Cause and Effect In Irukandjl Stlnglngs, by J. H. Lawson and A. S. Hewstone, and Toxic Effects of Colistin Methane Sulphonate In the New-Born.

Box jellyfish antivenom and “Irukandji” stings

Box jeUyfish antivenom and"Irukandji" stings, and multi-antibiotic-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Western Australia.

Marine stings.

  • D. Gurry
  • Business
    Australian family physician
  • 1992
The authors' superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation, but the unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

“Irukandji” syndrome: a risk for divers in tropical waters

  • J. C. Hadok
  • Medicine
    The Medical journal of Australia
  • 1997

More Barnes on Box jellyfish

  • 1988