A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high-altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO

  title={A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high-altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO},
  author={J L Bertaux and Ann Carine Vandaele and Oleg I. Korablev and Eric Villard and Anna A. Fedorova and Didier Fussen and Eric Qu{\'e}merais and Denys Belyaev and Arnaud Mahieux and Franck Montmessin and Christine H. Muller and Eddy Neefs and Dennis Nevejans and Valérie Wilquet and Jean-Pierre Dubois and Alain Hauchecorne and A. V. Stepanov and Imant I. Vinogradov and Alexander V. Rodin},
Venus has thick clouds of H2SO4 aerosol particles extending from altitudes of 40 to 60 km. The 60–100 km region (the mesosphere) is a transition region between the 4 day retrograde superrotation at the top of the thick clouds and the solar–antisolar circulation in the thermosphere (above 100 km), which has upwelling over the subsolar point and transport to the nightside. The mesosphere has a light haze of variable optical thickness, with CO, SO2, HCl, HF, H2O and HDO as the most important minor… 
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