This study concerns a patient with minor (m)-BCR/ABL transcript-positive and Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-negative myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The patient was a 78-year-old man whose condition was diagnosed as refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation. Molecular genetic studies, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis detected m-BCR/ABL messenger RNA. We used spectral karyotyping to analyze metaphase cells but could not detect a Ph chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, revealed fusion signals of BCR and ABL probes on an apparently normal chromosome 22.