A useful, physiological tool for assessing the arousal level in humans: averaged photopalpebral reflex.


The averaged photopalpebral reflex (PPR) was bipolarly recorded from electrodes placed on the upper and lower palpebrae in male university students. In a drowsy state which was defined by the monitored EEG, the latencies of PPR were significantly prolonged and the amplitude reduced. In contrast, the latencies were shortened by immersing their hands in ice… (More)


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