A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.

  title={A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.},
  author={Anthony G Greenwald and Mahzarin R. Banaji and Laurie A Rudman and Shelly Farnham and Brian A. Nosek and Deborah S. Mellott},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={109 1},
This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz. 1998), and (c) social psychology's consistency theories of the 1950s, especially F. Heider's (1958) balance theory. The balanced identity design is introduced as a method to test correlational predictions… 
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Social Identity Theory's Self-Esteem Hypothesis: A Review and Some Suggestions for Clarification
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    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 1998
Although no convincing evidence is found for the self-esteem hypothesis in its full and unqualified form, it is argued that this is due to a lack of specificity in its formulation and it is suggested that a more qualified and specific version of the hypothesis may be more appropriate.
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