A unified pH scale for all phases.


Arrhenius, Brønsted, and Lowry defined acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors, a concept nowadays known as Brønsted acidity. It is used in all chemistry-related areas including materials science energy storage, catalysis, environmental science, and molecular biology. In aqueous solution Brønsted acidity is expressed quantitatively as the pH… (More)
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000252

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