A two-factor model of defensive pessimism and its relations with achievement motives.

@article{Lim2009ATM,
  title={A two-factor model of defensive pessimism and its relations with achievement motives.},
  author={Lena L. Lim},
  journal={The Journal of psychology},
  year={2009},
  volume={143 3},
  pages={318-36}
}
The author first examined the underlying factor structure of the defensive pessimism construct and its relations with achievement motives. The author used a sample of 542 Singaporean undergraduate students and found that defensive pessimism is a 2-factor construct that comprises (a) negative expectation, in which individuals worry about possible pitfalls, and (b) reflectivity, in which individuals put forth efforts to prevent possible pitfalls. Then, the author used a sample of 160 Singaporean… CONTINUE READING

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