A total extinction confidently hoped for: the destruction of Cape San society under Dutch colonial rule, 1700–1795

  title={A total extinction confidently hoped for: the destruction of Cape San society under Dutch colonial rule, 1700–1795},
  author={Mohamed Adhikari},
  journal={Journal of Genocide Research},
  pages={19 - 44}
  • M. Adhikari
  • Published 1 June 2010
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Journal of Genocide Research
San (Bushman) society in the Cape Colony was almost completely annihilated during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as a result of land confiscation, massacre, forced labour and cultural suppression that accompanied colonial rule. Whereas similar obliterations of indigenous peoples in other parts of the world have resulted in major public controversies and heated debate amongst academics about the genocidal nature of these episodes, in South Africa the issue has effectively been ignored… Expand
Background to conflict prevention and conflict avoidance
  • 2017
The San of Southern Africa have experienced colonial oppression, dispossession of their traditional lands, displacement and systemic violence over the past hundreds of years (see Adhikari 2010;Expand
Trouble on the Tarka: The History of Bandit Groups on the Cape Colony’s Eastern Border and the Archive of Their Rock Art
Since Europeans first attempted to settle the region of the Tarka river valley in today’s Eastern Cape, South Africa, during the late eighteenth century they were opposed by Indigenous groups. TheExpand
Religious Afrikaners, irreligious in conflicts
  • Erna Oliver
  • Political Science
  • HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies
  • 2019
From the first days of their settlement at the southern part of Africa – from 1652 onwards – the European settlers distinguished themselves from the indigenous people groups by referring toExpand
‘We do not know who painted our pictures’: child transfers and cultural genocide in the destruction of Cape San societies along the Cape Colony’s north-eastern frontier, c.1770–1830
ABSTRACT The Cape San were not eliminated by outright killing only. The commercial stock-farming economy on the north-eastern frontier of the Cape Colony created a demand for labour. Those Cape SanExpand
Cattle, raiding and disorder in Southern African history
Abstract Cattle raiding is iconic of the colonial frontier in Southern African history and historiography. Incorporating settlers and Africans as aggressors and victims alike, archives andExpand
Abstract of: Below the Sediments: Dissecting Water Alienation in the Semi-Desert Region of the Karoo, South Africa
The Karoo is a semidesert region that lies in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa and is recognized for its stark, arid and harsh beauty. This landscape holds a particular metaphysical place inExpand
Indigeneity and Development in Botswana: The Case of the San in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve
This paper discusses how San involved with the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) in Botswana express and interpret their sense of indigeneity amidst the systemic marginalization and discriminationExpand
Exiled from History: Africa in Hegel’s Academic Practice
Abstract: Many scholars, African and otherwise, have excoriated G.W.F. Hegel for his dismissal of Africa from history and progress in his lectures on the philosophies of history and religion. ThisExpand
Uprooting “Indigeneity” in South Africa's Western Cape: The Plant That Moves
Amid global concerns about climate change, scientists suggest that South African rooibos tea's indigenous ecosystem may be shifting southward. By 2011, rooibos farmers were beginning to worry thatExpand
The Sociogenic Imperative of Typography
The Corporate Identity and Branding Guidelines of the Republic of South Africa (2005) regulates the visual communication protocol of the new Republic of South Africa. The Guidelines were symptomaticExpand


The Forgotten Frontier: Colonist and Khoisan on the Cape's Northern Frontier in the 18th Century
In South African history, the Eastern Cape frontier has been traditionally regarded as the pre-eminent zone of contact between colonists and indigenes. But there was an earlier frontier in theExpand
A History of Inequality in South Africa 1652-2002
A History of Inequality in South Africa, 1652-2002. By Sampie Terreblanche. Pietermaritzburg: University of Durban Press, 2002. Pp. xvi, 527. $43.95 paper. Sampie Terreblanche is a distinguishedExpand
Khoisan resistance to the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
The responses of the Khoisan peoples to the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries have generally been dismissed summarily by historians. This article attempts toExpand
Landscape of conquest: frontier water alienation and Khoikhoi strategies of survival, 1652–1780
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries European settlers ousted the Khoikhoi and San from much of the land they inhabited in south‐western Africa using a strategic combination of technology andExpand
The Northern Cape frontier zone, 1700 - c.1815
This thesis is a history of the northern Cape frontier zone between the years 1700 and c.1815. It describes and analyses the interactions which occurred between the principal peoples of thisExpand
‘It is scarcely possible to conceive that human beings could be so hideous and loathsome’: discourses of genocide in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America and Australia
Finzsch's analysis of Australian sources of the late Enlightenment and Romantic period, written between 1788 and 1850, shows that racism did not begin with the mid-nineteenth century. In these texts,Expand
Representing the Cape "Hottentots," from the French Enlightenment to Post-apartheid South Africa
The article is framed by South African president Thabo Mbeki's speeches on the relevance of French eighteenth-century thought to South Africa. French travellers who visited the Cape Colony betweenExpand
Genocide in the Age of the Nation State, Vol. 2: The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide
Most books on genocide consider it primarily as a twentieth-century phenomenon. In "The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide", Levene argues that this approach fails to grasp its true origins.Expand
Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native
The article explores the relationship between genocide and the settler colonialism. The author asserts that though the settler-colonial logic of elimination has manifested as genocidal-they should beExpand
The San Artistic Achievement
The supremacy of San ("Bushman") rock paintings and engravings among the graphic arts of preliterate peoples is today virtually beyond dispute. Recent discoveries have shown them to have anExpand