A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

  title={A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.},
  author={Claude M. Steele},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={52 6},
  • C. Steele
  • Published 1997
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American psychologist
A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain… Expand
The many faces of stereotype threat: Group- and self-threat
Abstract Contending with negative intellectual stereotypes has been shown to depress the academic performance of targets of the stereotypes [Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypesExpand
Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance
Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report thatExpand
Stereotype Threat, Social Class, Gender, and Academic Under-Achievement: When Our Reputation Catches Up to Us and Takes Over
According to Steele (1997), negative stereotypes about intellectual abilities can act as a threat that disrupts the performance of students targeted by bad reputations. Previous research onExpand
The Effects of Stereotype Threat on MIS Students: An Initial Investigation
The theory supports the contention that males may outperform females on certain tasks but attributes the reason to psycho-social factors and not to innate ability. Expand
1 REDUCING STEREOTYPE THREAT EFFECTS Creating a Critical Mass Eliminates the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Women
  • 2017
Background: Women in mathematical domains may become attuned to situational cues that signal a discredited social identity, contributing to their lower achievement and underrepresentation. Aim: TheExpand
Creating a critical mass eliminates the effects of stereotype threat on women's mathematical performance.
Findings suggest that single-sex testing environments may represent a practical intervention to alleviate stereotype threat effects but may have a paradoxical effect on mindset. Expand
When Positive Stereotypes Threaten Intellectual Performance: The Psychological Hazards of “Model Minority” Status
Although people commonly hold positive stereotypes about Asians' mathematical skills, making these stereotypes salient prior to performance can create the potential for “choking” under the pressure of high expectations. Expand
Stereotype Threat in the Classroom: Dejection Mediates the Disrupting Threat Effect on Women’s Math Performance
It appears that dejection emotions mediate the effect of threat manipulation in women working on mathematical problems, and this effect exists in this everyday setting: high school classrooms. Expand
Stereotype Threat in School and at Work
In any diverse society, public policy can help to provide equal access to opportunities for achieving one’s potential in school and work. However, even as policies in the United States have sought toExpand
Identity Separation in Response to Stereotype Threat
Despite widespread evidence for the performance costs of stereotype threat, little research has examined other psychological consequences, such as disengagement or disidentification. The presentExpand


Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed and mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. Expand
Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance
Abstract When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicament stereotype threat and hypothesize thatExpand
Coping with Negative Stereotypes about Intellectual Performance: The Role of Psychological Disengagement
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that members of negatively stereotyped groups psychologically disengage their self-esteem from feedback received in stereotype-relevant domains. In bothExpand
Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma.
Although several psychological theories predict that members of stigmatized groups should have low global self-esteem, empirical research typically does not support this prediction. It is proposedExpand
The Rage of a Privileged Class
Polls consistently indicate that affluent and college-educated African-Americans are at least as disaffected and pessimistic as those struggling at society's periphery. They report more encountersExpand
Academics, Self-Esteem, and Race: A Look at the Underlying Assumptions of the Disidentification Hypothesis
Theorists have argued that global self-esteem should be related to performance in academics. However, studies have reported lower academic achievement among African American students than among WhiteExpand
Marginal and mindful: deviants in social interactions.
The positive or negative connotations of the master status conditions were irrelevant in predicting Ss cognitions (mindfulness) but were critical in determining Ss behaviors (interaction strategies). Expand
Gender Roles and Women's Achievement-Related Decisions
Occupational sex segregation continues to exist and the occupational career paths of women and men continue to differ. This article proposes a model to explain these persistent, gender-role linkedExpand
Memory deficits and memory surfeits: differential cognitive consequences of tokenism for tokens and observers.
  • C. Lord, D. Saenz
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1985
It is tested the possibilities of whether tokens might suffer more cognitive deficits than would nontokens, and whether they do so even when they are treated no differently. Expand
Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change☆☆☆
The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychologicalExpand