A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

  title={A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.},
  author={Claude M. Steele},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={52 6},
  • C. Steele
  • Published 1 June 1997
  • Psychology
  • The American psychologist
A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain… 

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