• Corpus ID: 51139715

A theory of Pavlovian conditioning : Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement

  title={A theory of Pavlovian conditioning : Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement},
  author={Robert Rescorla},
In several recent papers (Rescorla, 1969; Wagner, 1969a, 1969b) we have entertained similar theories of Pavlovian conditioning. The separate statements have in [act differed more in the language of their expression than in their substance. The major intent of the present paper is to explicate a more precise version of the form of theory involved, and to indicate how it may be usefully applied to a variety of phenomena in· volving asso('iative learning. The impetus for a new theoretical model is… 

Figures from this paper

evolution of an elemental theory of Pavlovian conditioning
In the 1930s, Kenneth Spence published an unprecedented quantitative theory of discrimination learning (Spence, 1936, 1937). An important feature of Spence’s theory, relevant to the present
Precis ofFrustration Theory: An Analysis of Dispositional Learning and Memory
In the history of the scientific study of learning and memory, a number of terms have been used to describe abstract experimental paradigms that purport to repre­ sent different mechanisms of
Behavioral studies of Pavlovian conditioning.
  • R. Rescorla
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 1988
This review brings to the attention of neuroscientists some of the current thinking of psychologists who study learning processes from a behavioral perspective and describes some properties of a carefully chosen example of learning that has dominated modern theorizing: Pavlovian conditioning.
Empirical Issues and Theoretical Mechanisms of Pavlovian Conditioning
Pavlovian conditioning is a very simple and universal form of learning that has the benefit of a long and rich tradition of experimental work and quantitative theorization. With the development of
Elaboration of a model of Pavlovian learning and performance: HeiDI.
The model elaborated here adapts the influential pooled error term, first described by Wagner and Rescorla (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972; Wagner & Rescorla, 1972), to govern the formation of reciprocal
A Conditioned Opponent Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning and Habituation1
Publisher Summary This chapter examines that Pavlovian conditioning occurs when hedonic stimuli disrupt affective equilibrium, and that an important function of the learning occurs on such occasions
Evidence that blocking is due to associative deficit: Blocking history affects the degree of subsequent associative competition
No finding in the study oflearning has had greater the­ oretical impact than the phenomenon ofblocking (Kamin, 1968). When one element (A) of a compound stimulus (A + B) is pretrained prior to the
HeiDI: A model for Pavlovian learning and performance with reciprocal associations
A simple model involving reciprocal associations between the CS and US (VCS-US and VUS-CS) that simulates these qualitative individual differences in conditioned behavior is developed and enables a broad range of phenomena to be accommodated.
Similarity and Discrimination: A Selective Review and a Connectionist Model
The 1st part of this article evaluates the extent to which 2 elemental theories of conditioning, stimulus sampling theory and the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) theory, are able to account for the influence
Pavlovian conditioning. It's not what you think it is.
The changes that have occurred in Pavlovian conditioning are reviewed to give the flavor of its contemporary form, and it is argued that conditioning continues to have a central place in psychology generally.


Principles of behavior. New York.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 19411
  • Kamin. L. J. Attention-like processes in classical conditioning
  • 1941
Stimulus selection in animal discrimination learning.
ProbabililY of shock in the presence and absence of CS in fear condilioning
  • Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology
  • 1967
Analysis of the overlearning reversal effect.
  • E. Lovejoy
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological review
  • 1966
Slimulus validity and slimulus seleclion
  • 1964
A lheory of slimulus variability in learning
  • Psycho - logical Review , I 9511 .
  • 1962
Secondary reinforcement in rais as a function of information value and reliability of lhe stimulus
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology
  • 1962