A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft

  title={A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft},
  author={Bruno Bertotti and Luciano Iess and Paolo Tortora},
According to general relativity, photons are deflected and delayed by the curvature of space-time produced by any mass. The bending and delay are proportional to γ + 1, where the parameter γ is unity in general relativity but zero in the newtonian model of gravity. The quantity γ - 1 measures the degree to which gravity is not a purely geometric effect and is affected by other fields; such fields may have strongly influenced the early Universe, but would have now weakened so as to produce tiny… 

Testing general relativity during the cruise phase of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

General relativity (GR) predicts that photons are delayed and deflected by the space curvature produced by any mass. The Post-Newtonian (PN) parameter controlling the curvature induced by a

Tests of General Relativity from Timing the Double Pulsar

By measuring relativistic corrections to the Keplerian description of the orbital motion, it is found that the “post-Keplerian” parameter s agrees with the value predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 0.05%, the most precise test yet obtained.


The solar system is the classical laboratory for testing the laws of gravity. Many of the most important tests of general relativity have been made using solar-system bodies. These include tests

Testing General Relativity with the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and

Accurate light-time correction due to a gravitating mass

This technical paper of mathematical physics arose as an aftermath of the 2002 Cassini experiment (Bertotti et al 2003 Nature 425 374–6), in which the PPN parameter γ was measured with an accuracy σγ

The effect of the motion of the Sun on the light-time in interplanetary relativity experiments

In 2002, a measurement of the effect of solar gravity upon the phase of coherent microwave beams passing near the Sun was carried out by the Cassini mission, allowing a very accurate measurement of

The determination of the post-Newtonian parameter γ during the cruise phase of BepiColombo

The post-Newtonian parameter γ, unity in general relativity, controls the delay and the deflection of photons induced by the space-time curvature produced by any mass. A precise determination of this

Testing the universality of free fall by tracking a pulsar in a stellar triple system

Einstein's theory of gravity, general relativity, has passed stringent tests in laboratories, elsewhere in the Solar Sytem, and in pulsar binaries. Nevertheless it is known to be incompatible with

Testing general relativity through the computation of radiative terms and within the neutron star strong-field regime

The recent detection of coalescing black holes by theLaser InterferometerGravitationalwave Observatory has brought forth the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Physicists are only now beginning to

New concept for testing general relativity: The Laser astrometric test of relativity (LATOR) mission

This paper discusses a Fundamental physics experiment that will test relativistic gravity at the accuracy better than the effects of the second order in the gravitational field strength, ∝ G2. The



Relativistic effects for Doppler measurements near solar conjunction

The authors consider the relativistic corrections to the Doppler effect in a metric theory of gravity, in the weak field and slow motion approximation, for a source and a receiver at great distances

The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment

  • C. Will
  • Physics, Geology
    Living reviews in relativity
  • 2001
Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light defl ection the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion.

A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Total Eclipse of May 29, 1919

1. The purpose of the expeditions was to determine what effect, if any, is produced by a gravitational field on the path of a ray of light traversing it. Apart from possible surprises, there appeared

Viking relativity experiment - Verification of signal retardation by solar gravity

Analysis of 14 months of data obtained from radio ranging to the Viking spacecraft verified, to an estimated accuracy of 0.1%, the prediction of the general theory of relativity that the round-trip

Solar Coronal Plasma in Doppler Measurements

Doppler tracking of an interplanetary spacecraft near solar conjunction is strongly affected by the plasma in the solar corona, the main competitive contribution in measurements of the gravitational

Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics

New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been

Doppler tracking of spacecraft with multi-frequency links

We discuss the use of multi-frequency microwave links in Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft for scientific purposes, especially in relation to the measurement and the elimination of the

The string dilation and a least coupling principle

Violations of the equivalence principle in a dilaton-runaway scenario

We explore a version of the cosmological dilaton-fixing and decoupling mech- anism in which the dilaton-dependence of the low-energy effective action is extremized for infinitely large values of the

String theory, cosmology and varying constants

In string theory the coupling `constants' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) mass less scalar fields (dilaton,