A technique for computer detection and correction of spelling errors

@article{Damerau1964ATF,
  title={A technique for computer detection and correction of spelling errors},
  author={Fred J. Damerau},
  journal={Commun. ACM},
  year={1964},
  volume={7},
  pages={171-176}
}
The method described assumes that a word which cannot be found in a dictionary has at most one error, which might be a wrong, missing or extra letter or a single transposition. The unidentified input word is compared to the dictionary again, testing each time to see if the words match—assuming one of these errors occurred. During a test run on garbled text, correct identifications were made for over 95 percent of these error types. 

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